Bangladesh a constitutional secular-democratic state, has got its independence from Pakistan in 1971. After the liberation war, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman came into power. He banned all the religious political parties. After the assassination of Sheikh Mujib in 1975, Ziaur Rahman came into power. He came to the power with a successful military coup. Ziaur Rahman policies were more Islam centric. Though it has been also said that he used religion as a tool to legitimate his government as it was a military regime. In the 5th amendment, Ziaur Rahman add
From a perilous beginning, Bangladesh has attained notable advancements in economic and social development in about four decades. Since it won its independent in 1971 following a bloody war, many, in the international community were doubtful about the country’s long-term economic sustainability. Some observers predicted a state of continuing aid dependency, while others believed if a country with such enormous and innumerable development problems as Bangladesh could make strides in development, then possibly other developing countries could as
I felt that the most important aspect of this case is the history that has been with Bangladesh, and the major political turmoil it has seen in a very short period of time. In 1947 the government transitioned from British-ruled to that of a providence of Pakistan, which became known as East Pakistan. Although they had independence, they always felt disconnect and that they were underrepresented in the government. In the early 1970’s, they gained their independence with the help of India and became known as the country of Bangladesh. The country has continued to remain split with many political groups fighting for power to overthrow leadership. Many of the parties were linked to opposition newspapers, which promote their
Before 1971, Bangladesh was divided into two regions; both with opposing political power. Although East Pakistan (Bangladesh) withheld the larger population between the two provinces, it acquired much less political dominance than West Pakistan. Through the power and representation of leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, East Pakistan rebelled. Rahman, leader of political party ‘The Awami League’ demanded more powers both politically and economically. This struggle finally cumulated into the war of independence for East Pakistan.
Just as civil conflict led to international conflict, international conflict lead to additional threats from other countries. Although GB only became involved with Afghanistan to prevent Russia from invading, within two centuries their involvement became futile. In 1979, Soviets invaded Afghanistan. Even after a long period of independence in Afghanistan, Afghan troops were unable to defeat the Soviets. The war was brutal, and lasted for an entire decade. Afghanistan remained a weak state from the Soviet-Afghan war, which made them susceptible to intervention from the U.S in 2001. Both events, the Soviet invasion and the arrival of American troops, can be traced back to the border. The border led to complex issues which occurred in quick succession, therefore Afghanistan and Pakistan had to pay attention to the issues that were right in front of them, because they were so apparent and pressing. However, as Af and Pak were distracted, more powerful countries like America and Russia were able to invade. It was an awareness of surrounding political climates that kept Russia and GB out of Afghanistan during the first Anglo-Afghan war, but with their own borders and issues to worry about Af and Pak paid no attention to other
The ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan has been the subject of speculation and study by political scientists and historians for a number of years. The ethnic conflict seems to have been sparked at the very beginning in 1947, when the British used Muslim and Hindu mercenaries against each other before the area finally split into today’s countries of India and Pakistan (Spiegel et al. 2015, 185). The timeline since then has been full of conflicts, both major and minor. Brutal tactics used by security forces and a high rate of unemployment have added to the issue (BBC News 2016).
In the middle of 1971 the war between India and Pakistan became a must for India, there seemed no miracle to halt the inevitable nor Allah wanted Pakistan to keep continuing with its’ nefarious activities, and the entire world leaders and major powers become active to have their own slice of flash. The intelligence agencies of USA, USSR, China, India, Pakistan and other countries became highly active, sensitive to each and every movement in the Indian-sub-continent. Israel’s Mossad came out highly successful in trapping a few high govt, official of Pakistan’s Defence Ministry, and women who were regular visitors to President’s House of Pakistan in Rawalpindi. The valuable information procured by Mossad were passed on to India and Gen.Yahya Khan never came to know the moles in his house and office.
One thing that the world does not always acknowledge, is that many countries have actually been demanding for independence ever since the 1800’s. The partition that created Pakistan was a long and tedious process before it got approved. Before World War II, Great Britain had full control over the country of India and its resources, even though the people were demanding for self-rule for several years. At the time, India consisted of both Muslim and Hindu cultures, and the tensions between the two
The British’s goal to separate the Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs was a total disaster. “The trouble was that Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs were an integrated population so that it was impossible to make a border without widespread dislocation.” This quote states that making a border was impossible because the groups aren’t meant to be spread apart. “By the end of 1947 there were virtually no Hindus or Sikhs living in west India - now part of Pakistan - and no Muslims in the Indian east.” This explains how the British made Pakistan because of the partition. “The British government and Mountbatten must bear a large part of the blame for this tragedy." Therefore, the British caused religious violence and disagreement against each
The years subsequent the war, Britain kept their promise to India. In return for military labor and free access to commodities throughout the war, Britain would relinquished their hold on the territory thus, allowing it its freedom. In 1947, British India was partitioned into ‘India and Pakistan’ and soon after, was given its independence as a solitary state apart from Pakistan. Although this was what the Indian Independence Movement aspired for, violence between Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus quickly arose (Pierce). The conflict sparked what became the determining factor in the separation of the two states, independently India, and Pakistan. India and its neighboring regions were flooded with mass exodus, people who believed that a Hindu India, and a Muslim/Sikh Pakistan was the best possible way to begin independence packed their things and left, seeking the land of their religious majority. Over 14.5 million people crossed borders. Nearby in Burma (what is modern day Myanmar), Japan had invaded with the assumption that they could easily take hold of the Burmese colony, which was incredibly blessed with
“Kill three million of them, and the rest will eat out of our hands” (qtd. in Hensher). In keeping with this declaration of General Yahya Khan, West Pakistani soldiers began a campaign in 1971 to torture and kill millions of Bengalis and Hindus in East Pakistan. West Pakistan had significant concerns regarding the unrest of the independence movement in East Pakistan, and had decided to halt the protests by force. After the first attacks at Dhaka University on the night of March 25, 1971, until the surrender of Pakistani forces to the Indian military on December 16, West Pakistan succeeded in their plan to inflict extreme suffering on the Bengali ethnicity. The East Pakistan genocide of 1971 involving West and East Pakistan was a result of the
Bangladesh is a country that has been exploited by many super powers in the past. 1st it was the British and then stated the Pakistani regime. Continuously oppressed and exploited by these powers the resources of this country were already half exhausted. When Bangladesh emerged on 1971, the country started a new journey towards self sufficiency with whatever left over resources she had. And with those Bangladesh has maintained her pride among the developing countries for more than 40 years.
Analysis of a long period (1947-1971) needed for the independence of Bangladesh is mainly depicted in this book. Analysis of why a