The Basic Principle of Close Range Terrestrial Photogrammetry

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The basic principle of close range (terrestrial) photogrammetry will be explained in this section. “Photogrammetry is the art and science of deriving accurate metric and descriptive information from analog and digital images” (Habib et al., 2006; Habib Ghanma Al-Ruzouq Kim a; Ayman Paper A.F. Habib, K.I. Bang, M. Aldelgawy). Wolf, 1983 defined the photogrammetry as the art, science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and environment through the process of recording, measuring and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant imagery and other phenomena. It is obviously stated, in the definition, that photogrammetry can be used 3D model of real objects for many areas of discipline such as geological and geotechnical engineering, archeology, architecture, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, and environmental science. Photogrammetry is non-intrusive, cost-effective, is ideal for recording data of a complex nature, has high level of achievable accuracy, uses digital data which results in total flexibility across a multitude of platforms, plus images may be catalog and compared over time. The 3D data from imagery reconstructed through a photogrammetric triangulation (bundle adjustment) technique using converging overlapping images from different viewpoints around the area of interest.
Photogrammetry can be divided into two categories: aerial and close range (terrestrial) photogrammetry. Aerial photogrammetry

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