The Battle Between Cell in the Body and Pathogens in the Enviornment

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A constant battle occurs between the cells in the body and the pathogens in the environment. As a result, humans have evolved a very complex immune system to protect against the pathogens. Some of the cells that make up the adaptive immune system are the T cells and B cells. They are the body’s defence against pathogens at a cellular level by recognising a range of features which may be present on a pathogen and are able to facilitate the destruction of the pathogen by binding to it. Additionally, the cells need to be able to identify a wide range of antigens and to produce a large response to the antigen when the correct antibody is produced(Chaplin, 2010). In this essay, the mechanism of T and C cell development will be investigated and the development of T cells and B cells will be compared and contrasted.
T and B cells both begin development in the bone marrow as haematopoietic stem cells(Liu et al., 2013). The cells that will become T cells then migrate to the thymus where they mature and the B cells stay in the bone marrow to mature. The function of each cell type is similar in that they both need to protect the body against pathogens; however the mechanisms that they do this differ. T cells bind to antigens from the pathogen presented by MHC molecules whereas B cells produce antibodies from the pathogen directly and do not need the antigen to be presented by another cell.
Both T and B cells need to undergo tolerance tests to make sure they won’t be reactive to self

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