The Biological And Physiological Mechanisms Of Action, Regulation Of Gene Expression, And Safety Of The Gene

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Transgenic or Genetically Modified (GM) crops are plants used in agriculture that have been genetically modified using recombinant DNA technology. The aim for GM plants/crops is to express a gene or a trait that is not found in the species of the plant. The scientist that modify the plants insert a foreign gene into the plant’s original DNA. As a result to the modification, the plant receives characteristics within the genetic code. Most, GM plants become resistant to pesticides, however there are other variables within transgenic crops. Since the genes of humans, plants, and bacteria are all created from the same genetic material; scientist have a variety of genes to choose from, when modifying. Within plants, genetic modification occurs in steps . “ There are five major steps in the development of a genetically engineered crop. But for every step, it is very important to know the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of action, regulation of gene expression, and safety of the gene and the gene product to be utilized” 1. The first step is mapping; Mapping is locating and isolating the desired gene before extraction. Once the gene is extracted, it must be cloned. Many copies are made of the isolated Gene; gene cloning isolates the gene from the entire extracted DNA. Once it is cloned, the gene of interest is designed and packaged so that it can be controlled and properly expressed inside the host plant. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the cloning process, and it

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