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The Biological Compounds Of Proteins, Lipids And Nucleic

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ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this lab is to detect carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in different compounds by performing several different tests, such as Benedict’s test, Iodine test for starch, Biuret test for protein, Sudan IV color test for lipids, grease spot test and the Dische Diphenylamine Test.
Most of the chemical compounds that are present in living organisms consist of covalently bonded carbon atoms. These compounds are organic compounds because they are either produced by living things or present in them. Organic compounds are important because they are major components of tissues and cells. They have many functions and purposes as they provide energy for life process, regulate metabolic reactions as well as
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So we understand the purpose of the unknown, positive control and negative control and explore various tests to find the presence of different macromolecules in a given solution.
Carbohydrates are compounds of carbons, hydrogen and oxygen. They are usually found in ring structures and form polymers. Benedict’s test is a test for reducing sugars which are sugars with a free aldehyde (-CHO) or ketone (C-O) groups. This allows them to act as reducing agents. We have to understand that as the color changes from its original colors, there are some reducing sugars present. If its green that means there are only small amounts of reducing sugars present whereas when its in a spectrum between orange to red there’s a lot of reducing sugars present. Iodine tests are used to test for starch with is a polymer and is made up of amylose which traps iodine molecules. Hence, the iodine tests forms starch. If the solution turns out to be a starch iodine complex it will be dark blue and black in color.
Proteins perform many biological functions and it consists of one or more chains of amino acids. The nature of the amino acids determines its role. Peptide bonds are what connects the amino (NH2) and (-COOH) groups through dehydration synthesis reaction to make amino acid polymers. The Biuret test is a test for peptide
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