For our first generation (F1) of flies we chose to cross apterous (+) females and white-eye (w) males. We predicted that the mutation would be sex linked recessive. So if the female was the sex with the mutation then all females would be wild type heterozygous. Heterozygous is a term used when the two genes for a trait are opposite. The males would all be white eye since they only have one X chromosome. If the males were the sex that had the mutation then all the flies would be wild type but the females would be heterozygous.
It would be expected that the mutant F1 flies would be heterozygous for the allele responsible for the grounded trait. If two F1 flies were mated, the percentage of flies that would be expected to be wildtype in the F2 generation would be 25% mutants given that the mutant allele (ap) is predicted to be recessive and, leaving 75% to be wildtype (ap+).
The parents are both homozygous. The homozygous dominant would represent the wild type. And the homozygous recessive would represent the other fly parent of a different strain. The F1 generation would consist of 100% Wild Type but they would all be heterozygous in carrying the recessive gene.
The major topic of this experiment was to examine two different crosses between Drosophila fruit flies and to determine how many flies of each phenotype were produced. Phenotype refers to an individual’s appearance, where as genotype refers to an individual’s genes. The basic law of genetics that was examined in this lab was formulated by a man often times called the “father of genetics,” Gregor Mendel. He determined that individuals have two alternate forms of a gene, referred to as two alleles. An individual can me homozygous dominant (two dominant alleles, AA), homozygous recessive, (two recessive alleles, aa), or heterozygous (one dominant and one recessive
The basis of genetics were established by Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk in the mid to late 1800’s. Through the observations from cross-pollinating pea plants, Mendel was able to discover the basic laws of inheritance. Years later genetics would be studied on a multitude of organisms, some more than others. Drosophila melanogaster or the common fruit fly has been studied in depth for its great advantages, such as size, reproduction rate, ease of care and inexpensive room and board.
Cockroaches – cockroaches can live without their head but only for a few days. They can go without food longer than they can go without water. Cockroaches have 6 legs and 18 knees and are said to be one of fastest moving insects. A female cockroach mates only once, but remains pregnant for the rest of her life.
A species is certain kind of animal, plant, fungus or other organism. Which is a group of individual that are part of interbreed in nature, it is the largest gene pool under a natural condition. It is when a pair of organisms produce and offspring in nature and both parents need to belong to same species. This definition does not include many types of bacteria which are capable to asexual reproduction. Another difficult way of understanding would be like for example a cat species are capable of hybridizing such as a lion and a tiger who mate and produce a liger as well as a cross between a male jaguar and female lion which produce a jaglion. Species are formed through a process called speciation and this happens when lineage of single splits into to two or more separate species, this is how new species are created.
Environmental conditions are sometimes appropriate for the evolution of numerous species from a common ancestor. Evolutionary, or adaptive, radiations happen when a large number of species descend from one lineage. This phenomenon usually occurs when a population of one species colonizes an area with many available ecological niches and when the rate of speciation is greater than the rate of extinction in a given area. Adaptive radiations have historically taken place after mass extinctions and on newly formed island archipelagos, because these incidences create conditions where new species can fill open ecological niches. Unlike the mainland, ecological niches are available on new island systems. These island species adapt to new environments
There is a continuous, uncertain scientific argument among biologists with respect to the speciation of populaces: would they say they are the same species or two separate species? The argument in this paper is, whether the two “Western” Flycatcher populations, Cordilleran population and Pacific slope population are the same species or two separate species.
Lab 3a had involved 4 F1 generation crosses: a sex-linked cross between white eyed males and heterozygous wild-type female flies (XWY x X+XW), a dihybrid cross between heterozygous wild-type winged flies (Apterous carriers) that have wild-type eyes (but are sepia color carriers (ap+/ap; se+/se x ap+/ap; se+/se) , a monohybrid cross between Apterous and wild-type winged flies (ap/ap x ap+/ap+), and a dihybrid cross between wild type flies that are vestigial winged and sepia trait carriers (vg+/vg; se+/se x vg+/vg; se+/se).
The Simulium Meridionale, more commonly known as the black fly or the turkey gnat, gets its energy by feeding on the blood of mammals. Their predators are slightly larger organisms like spiders, frogs, and trout (Defoliart 2004). They can be found wherever there is something they can feast on. Turkey gnats are notorious for being a nuisance from April to August due to their need to feed on blood. This is due to females exhibiting anautogenous behavior and feeding on blood before laying their eggs, whereas males feed on nectar (Schnellbacher 2012).
With a booming economy and strong military, American culture in the 1950's experienced a wave of advances anywhere from cars, homes, highways, and agriculture. The film industry also flourished at this time especially through productions of horror films featuring not only characters such as Dracula, werewolves, or Frankenstein, but a more realistic monster that terrorized this generation. Giant bugs became rather popular on the big screen during this time and through multiple theories, they became quite significant to culture and certainly represented something other than themselves. Aside from the typical beliefs behind the bugs, such as the idea that they represent the fear of chemicals and radiation after war, a further idea is found that