The three models of addiction examined in this week’s readings include the medical model, the psychosocial model, and the disease of the human spirit model. The medical model “rests on the assumption that disease states are the result of a biological dysfunction, possibly one on the cellular or even molecular level” (Doweiko, 2012, p. 333). Many consider this model and “maintain that much of human behavior is based on the interaction between the individual’s biological predisposition and the environment” (Doweiko, 2012, p. 333). Individuals under this model view free will “as an illusion” (Doweiko, 2012, p. 333). There is controversy regarding this model as “to the degree to which the
Addiction knows no prejudice; it does not care what race, religion, sex or orientation. You can be addicted to drugs, gambling, x-box, shopping and eating. Addiction is an illness that requires, for most, professional help and that once you are an addict you are always an addict.
The biological aspect of addiction takes into account the genetic and inherited components of addiction, as well as the effects of addiction on the body itself. It also includes the neurobiological and neurobehavioral theories and studies, which are becoming the most popular ways in studying addiction. The physical component of addiction primarily relies on the dependence of the substance, the tolerance that the body creates as a result, and the experience of withdrawal symptoms. The psychological
There are many models and theories which attempt to explain the causes of substance misuse and dependence. They range from those which highlight the importance of genetic and biological factors to those which stress social and psychological factors and those which may consider the ‘blame’ to be that of the dependent individual (Rassool 2009).
Almost one hundred years ago, prescription drugs like morphine were available at almost any general store. Women carried bottles of very addictive potent opiate based pain killers in their purse. Many individuals like Edgar Allen Poe died from such addictions. Since that time through various federal, state and local laws, drugs like morphine are now prescription drugs; however, this has not stopped the addiction to opiate based pain killers. Today’s society combats an ever increasing number of very deadly addictive drugs from designer drugs to narcotics to the less potent but equally destructive alcohol and marijuana. With all of these new and old drugs going in and out of vogue with addicts, it appears that the increase of misuse and
The history of addiction goes back centuries, and unfortunately, there is still a long way to go for people to realize the effects of chemical substances do more harm than good. The difference between drug use and abuse relies heavily on a person’s dependence on the substance. The line between the differences is often very fine. Depending on other factors involved, such as morals, values, environment, and genetic predisposition, the line will most likely be crossed without regard to the consequences until treatment and recovery are the only options left. This is essay compares two theoretical explanations
Addictions are a diverse set of common and complex diseases that are to some extent tied together by shared genetic and environmental factors. Addiction includes alcohol use disorders, cannabis and cocaine use disorders, nicotine dependence, as well as non-substance–related behaviors. Both genetic and environmental variables contribute to the use and abuse of addictive substances, which may eventually lead to addiction.
The Biopsychosocial model (BPS) was established in the early 1970s as a replacement for the biomedical approach created by George Engel (1977). He had argued against the reductionist biomedical model of disease for not considering the behavioural, psychological and social dimensions in the model (Jull, 2017). Wade and Halligan, (2016) had established that biomedical remains as the dominant healthcare approach. The aim of BPS is to integrate the biological factors with psychological and environmental factors, Engel (1977) suggested that the biopsychosocial model of illness has a significant role in the functioning of humans in terms of disease or illness and can make medicine more scientific and should be adopted into psychiatry research (Adler, 2009). Davies and Roache, (2017) established that the model was exceedingly determined, recommending new details for practices as well as a non-reductive advocate for mental illness.
“Don’t treat the disease, treat the patient” . The concept of health has seemed to become complex in definition over the centuries as science improves. “Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.”-World Health Definition of Health (1948) 
In Australia there is a multitude of medication available to us to increase our quality of life that are typically used appropriately in the community. However, there has been a growing number of individuals misusing pharmaceutical drugs and this has now become an emerging public issue in Australia and overseas. This research will be based on the misuse of the following pharmaceutical drugs: opioids, benzodiazepines and codeine. All of which have the potential to become an addiction. The extent to which these drugs are misused by individuals will range from those intentionally using these drug for recreational reasons, to those who are unware that they are misusing the drugs due to inappropriate prescribing.
Addictive behaviors are created only after habit has taken control of a user’s life, there are several stages before this happens. These are five stages; the non-user, the experimental user, the recreational user, the abuser user, and the dependent user. A person who uses a substance and becomes addictive can be of any age, race, gender or social background.
The social model of addiction tries to recognize and repair systematic problems within society that could impact a person’s choice about substance use (Doweiko, 2015). Cultural, environmental, and family components of a person’s life are all a part of the social model. These influences can either enable the development of addiction or increase resistance against addiction. For instance, in distinct cultures and environments, the manufacture, sale, and distribution of illicit drugs are considered as acceptable behaviors for a person to prosper and gain respect (Doweiko, 2015). Social aspects such as poverty, community immersion, unemployment, and family structure either influence or guard the person from substance abuse. Identification of adverse social influences so that these concerns can be attended to will decrease the probability of the individual relapsing or the continued abuse of substances (Doweiko, 2015).
Among the numerous definitions for addiction, there lies yet another to define it from a biochemical perspective. Milkman (1983) defines it as “self-induced changes in neurotransmission that result in social problem behaviors." This definition encompasses the psychological, biochemical and social aspects of addictive processes. It is not limited to substance abuse and can be applied to any activity characterized by compulsion, loss of control and continuation of the substance despite harm. This has helped investigators gain a better understanding of the nature of addiction.
The disease model: This theory states that an individual who abuses drugs requires medical treatment rather than moral punishment or exhortation. This theory also justifies spending money to research substance abuse in the same way that money is spent to research other diseases. However, usually the term disease is reserved for a state in which we can identify an abnormal biochemical or physical condition. No abnormal biochemical or physical condition has been found in the case of substance addiction, although mounting evidence suggests that some individuals are genetically predisposed to addiction more so than others. Nevertheless, this theory continues to appeal to researchers, and an intensive effort is always being made to identify the physiological “switch” that establishes addiction after exposure to a drug (Lee, 2010).
They assume addicts lack moral principles or self-discipline and that they can quit by simply deciding to. The reality is, people who have struggled with substance abuse have often found it extremely difficult to quit due to the physical and/or mental addiction. Drug have the ability to change the brain patterns and cause health complications, making things harder in the long-term and may determine life or death. Fortunately, because of more research, there are more ways to back out of an addiction and seek help through an enduring and extensive treatment. Factors that affect the likelihood and speed of developing an addiction are environmental and individual factors, including genetics and