Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder known for severe persistent mood instabilities between mania and depression, . It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, and activity levels which makes ability to perform daily tasks very hard. (Concepts Advisory Panel [CAP], 2015). BPD affects more than 2.3 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population. (Guo, Patel, Li, & Keck 2010). There are four basic types of bipolar spectrum; All of them involve clear change in the mood energy, and activity levels (CAP,2015). These mood incidences’ ranges from periods of extremely high and energized behavior known as Manic episodes to very sad, or hopeless periods known as depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder, the client has at least one episode of manic followed by major depression. Bipolar II disorder, the client has one or more hypomanic and major depressive episodes, the other not so severe and less diagnoses type of Bipolar is chronic mood disorder that lasts more two years with combination of hypomania and dysthymia. (CAP,2015). This paper will go into, Bipolar I, Manic episodes, the pathophysiology, Sign and symptoms, treatments, comorbidity, nursing intervention and nursing and patient therapeutic relationship.
Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness, which involves hypomanic episodes, which are changes in someone’s usual mood. Originally, Bipolar Disorder was called manic depression because it does share similar symptoms with people diagnosed with depression. Bipolar Disorder is a severe condition because it can cause mania, which then causes hallucinations and paranoid rage. (Bipolar Disorder) Bipolar Disorder is classified into two categories, bipolar type 1 and bipolar type 2. Bipolar type 2 is more serious because there is more major depression episodes. (Bipolar Disorder) A study done by Revista Brasileria de Psiquitra, shows a higher prevalence of Bipolar Disorder type 1 but overall both are pretty low in the general population. (Clemente)
Mearsheimer’s short article “The cause of great power war” explains the occurrence of major power wars. According to Mearsheimer, power gives rise to three kinds of systems which are known as Bipolarity, Unbalanced Multipolarity, and
The mood disorder of bipolar is a roller coaster of high and low emotions. Bipolar has many different components and can manifest as either Bipolar I or Bipolar ( Oltmanns & Emery, 2015) Bipolar I is described as having one manic episode. ( Oltmanns & Emery ,2015) Mania is a disturbance in mood characterized by symptoms as elation, higher self-esteem, hyperactivity and expedited thought process. (Oltmanns & Emery, 2015) To have Bipolar II, a person must have at least one depressive episode and a mild manic episode. A depressive episode includes hypomania meaning in bipolar II a person will not have a full blown manic episode. (Oltmanns & Emery, 2015) People who have bipolar have a tough time with their emotions, because their emotions are not stable. They oftentimes feel like they are on an emotional roller-coaster because of the erratic ups and downs ( Oltmanns & Emery 2015)
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified. Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly swing from extremes of happiness, energy and clarity to sadness, fatigue and confusion. Bipolar disorder more commonly develops in older teenagers and young adults; it can appear in children as 6. The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown; there are two types of this disease:
Manic depression, also known as Bipolar Disorder is not your normal up and down mood change; it’s not like what most people experience, getting a little sad and getting over it. Instead it is extreme mood swing that “usually going from EXTREMLY happy to EXTREMLY angry” also include emotional highs and lows such as, depression and mania. Mood changes can happen as little as a few times a year or as often as several times a week; it depends on the person and their environment. At times, you feel very depressed and other times very relate. Bipolar disorder usually starts between the ages of 15 to 19 and rarely starts at the age of 40. When depressed or in a low mood you feel like you 're not happy all the time might even think that it’s not
Mental illness has plagued human kind for as long as we have been on this earth. The science of psychology has made great strides in past century. The stigma of being mentally ill has begun to fall away and people are finally starting to get the help that they need to recover. Bipolar disorder is one illness that we have come to more fully understand. Through assistance from a psychiatrist, family and medication a patient with bipolar disorder can enter remission and live a normal life.
Bipolar is a disorder that has a severe impact on everyone that is around the person diagnosed. While the individual may suffer from the disorder the most, others are right there with them. As of yet most scientists tend to agree that there’s no single cause for the bipolar disorder to form in an individual. There are many different types of bipolar and each type has different symptoms.
This source gives the readers an in-depth overview of Bipolar Disorder and the causes of having the mental health issue. There’s a great distinction between the ups and downs people experience and bipolar disorder. Due to the ups and downs teens and children experience, bipolar disorder is hard to diagnose during those early years. The National Center of Biotechnology Information’s research program is run by Senior Investigators, Tenure Track Investigators, Staff Scientists, and Postdoctoral Fellows which makes the source credible. The source contained
Bipolar disorder is an often devastating mental illnesses, with high emotional, social and economic impact on the lives of patients and family members [Jin and McCrone, 2015; Miller et al., 2014]. In recent decades, there has been significant progress in developing diagnostic methods for reliably diagnosing severe bipolar disorder (bipolar disorder type I) and some related bipolar “spectrum” disorders (bipolar type II disorder), and there has also been recent progress in identifying some of the genetic loci (through linkage and association analyses) which contribute to severe bipolar disorder. Controversy remains, however, about the diagnostic borders of bipolar disorder, particularly in relation to schizophrenia and schizoaffective
Bipolar Disorder or manic-depressive disorder is a disorder characterized by highs, manias, and lows, depressions, and can therefore be easily distinguished from unipolar depression, a major depressive disorder in DSM-5, by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes (Miklowitz & Gitlin, 2014). Bipolar disorder is generally an episodic, lifelong illness with a variable course (American Psychiatric Association, 2010). There are two classifications of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. If the episodes are primarily manic but there has been at least one depressive episode, the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder (Early, 2009). If the episodes are primarily depressed but there has been at least one episode of hypomania, increased mood that is more euphoric than normal but not quite manic, the diagnosis is bipolar II disorder (Early, 2009).
Waltz believes that bipolar systems provide more stability and thus provide a better guarantee of security and peace than multipolar systems. ‘With only two great powers, both can be expected to behave in a way to prolong the system’ (Waltz, 1979). That is because in maintaining the system they are maintaining themselves. According to that view, the Cold War was a period of international stability and peace. (Jackson and Sorensen, 2003)