Postpartum depression can have serious consequences for the health of both mother and child. Indeed, a recent study of 10, 000 postpartum women found 19.3% of women with postpartum depression had considered hurting themselves (5). In the United Kingdom suicide is the leading cause of maternal death in the postpartum period (6). Even in less severe cases, postpartum depression may compromise caregiving practices (e.g., are less likely to use car seats, breastfeed, or ensure that their child receives up to date vaccinations); (7;8) and maternal-infant bonding (e.g., are less responsive to their infants, engage in less face-to-face interactive play and participate in fewer enrichment activities); (7;9;10). These factors may be partly responsible for delayed cognitive, intellectual, social, and emotional development of the child (11-15). Given the negative consequences of postpartum depression, prevention and treatment is imperative.
Thesis: Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can greatly effect new mothers. Knowing how to recognize their symptoms and treating it can greatly increase chances of a healthy, happy living.
The impact of postpartum depression causes a mother to frequently feel exhausted, emotionally empty, and guilty because she cannot show love to her baby. The mother feels overwhelmed by feelings of harming her baby and may lack the emotional energy to relate to her newborn, which prevents her from perceiving the baby’s attempts to communicate. Depressed mothers are less likely to play with, read to, or even breastfeed their baby and tend to be inconsistent in their care causing a disruption in the bonding process. Many mothers are embarrassed to get help out of shame. Postpartum depression also has an extremely high impact on the newborn. Katja Gaschler (2008) states, “three-month-old infants of depressed mothers look at their mothers less often and show fewer signs of positive emotion than do babies of mentally healthy mothers” (p. 65). Postpartum depression during the first few months of life may also cause negative effects on a child’s development including: social problems (difficulty establishing relationships, social withdrawal, and acting out destructively); behavioral problems (temper tantrums, sleep problems, hyperactivity, and aggression); cognitive problems (walking and talking late and learning difficulties); and emotional problems (low self-esteem and anxiety). The family as a whole is also greatly impacted by
To assess the mothers’ postpartum psychiatric difficulties the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS; Beck & Gable, 2000) was used. Prior to treatment, mothers completed a self-report questionnaire packed comprised of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1993), the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF; Abidin, 1995), and the Maternal Self-Report Inventory-Short Form (MSI-SF; Shea &
Depression is something that is only temporary and something that most new mothers go through, but Andrea had a long history of depression and this is also something that runs in her family come to find out. Andrea was prescribed with Zoloft, but refused to take it because she had preferred to breast-feed her youngest. “The ailing mother was discharged and another psychiatrist switched her to Zyprexa, an antipsychotic drug for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Andrea flushed the pills down the toilet. Then she got worse. To this point, she'd experienced several
Often the time after birth is a filled with joy and happiness due to the arrival of a new baby. However, for some mothers the birth of a baby leads to some complicated feelings that are unexpected. Up to 85% of postpartum woman experience a mild depression called “baby blues” (Lowdermilk, Perry, Cashion, & Alden, 2012). Though baby blues is hard on these mothers, another form of depression, postpartum depression, can be even more debilitating to postpartum woman. Postpartum depression affects about 15% (Lowdermilk et al., 2012) of postpartum woman. This disorder is not only distressing to the mother but to the whole family unit. This is why it is important for the nurse to not only recognize the signs and symptoms of a mother with postpartum depression, but also hopefully provide preventative care for the benefit of everyone involved.
Postpartum psychiatric disorders, particularly depression, has become the most underdiagnosed complication in the United States. It can lead to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development (Earls, 2010). Over 400,000 infants are born to mothers that are depressed. One of 7 new mothers (14.5%) experience depressive episodes that impair maternal role function. An episode of major or minor depression that occurs during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth is called perinatal or postpartum depression (Wisner, Chambers & Sit, 2006). Mothers with postpartum depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that may make it difficult for them to complete daily care activities for themselves or for others (Postpartum Depression). The six stages of postpartum are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance and PTSD. These stages may affect any women regardless of age, race, ethnicity, or economic status. However only a physician can diagnose a woman with postpartum depression. It does not occur because of something a mother does or does not do, it’s a combination of physical and emotional factors. After childbirth, the levels of hormones in a woman’s body quickly drop; which may lead to chemical changes in her brain (Postpartum Depression). Unbalanced hormones may trigger mood swings.
Postpartum depression, which is the most prevalent of all maternal depressive disorders, is said to be the hidden epidemic of the 21st century. (1) Despite its high prevalence rate of 10-15% and increased incidence, postpartum depression often goes undetected, and thus untreated. (2) Nearly 50% of postpartum depression cases are untreated. As a result, these cases are put at a high risk of being exposed to the severe and progressive nature of their depressive disorder. (3) In other words, the health conditions of untreated postpartum depression cases worsen and progress to one of their utmost stages, and they are: postpartum obsessive compulsive disorder, postpartum panic disorder, postpartum post traumatic stress, and postpartum psychosis.
The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 20 people suffer from depression (2014). Although widely recognized and somewhat easy to diagnose, depression is an ignored and almost hidden, disease. In women, the statistics are especially grim for those who are pregnant or were recently pregnant. A great number of women suffer from postpartum depression; an illness which is often overlooked, misdiagnosed and untreated. Postpartum depression (PPD) has been defined as an emotional disorder that occurs in an estimated 10-15% of all women after childbirth (Liberto, 2010). Postpartum depression not only impacts the mother, but can cause long-term psychological challenges for the baby and create emotional turmoil for all family members.
Depression is a common problem during and after pregnancy; about thirteen percent of pregnant women and new mothers have depression (Women’s Health, par. 2). According to the National Institute of Mental Health, postpartum depression is defined as a mood disorder that can affect women after childbirth (National Institute of Mental Health, par. 2). Even though the mothers that suffer from postpartum depression often think it is their fault, postpartum depression can happen to any mother. This is because it is a disorder that is out of their control, it is common among many mothers and it is usually caused by a hormonal imbalance.
Mental health has become an important factor in a persons well-being and is recognized as having the same importance as physical health. The mental health of a person can determine how they act in society. Their mood and behavior can be severely affected in ways that family or friends don’t understand. A mood disorder that has a significant affect on family members is called postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that occurs in women who have given birth a few weeks prior. This mood disorder is diagnosed after two months or even longer, new mother can be continuously sad throughout the day and feel as though not having a connection with their baby. Doctors are not able to know which mother will have postpartum depression
There is need for people to understand what postpartum depression is and learn how to deal efficiently and effectively with it. According to the national health science (NHS), postpartum depression is defined as a depression that normally occurs after childbirth. To help deal with this issue, a lot of investment has been made for public sensitization on how to handle the issue. However, this effort of public sensitization may yield little results because many people view this problem as a problem of others. This literature review therefore focused on trying to understand the various issues surrounding or leading to postpartum depression and the effects that it has on family experience, starting from the mother, the child, the father and the whole society in general. The study was majorly centered on trying to understand to what extent the depression either directly or indirectly affects the mother, the father and the whole society, in general. The objective of this literature review was to examine and decode a considerable number of relevant articles that had researched and arrived at conclusions that related to postpartum depression. After rigorous review of the literature, it was found out that postpartum depression had a direct effect on the family experience. The findings show how exactly postpartum depression affects the mother, the father/family, the child and the whole society in general. This
Almost ten percent of recent mothers experience postpartum depression ((3)), occurring anytime within the first year after childbirth ((3)). The majority of the women have the symptoms for over six months ((2)) . These symptoms include
Mothers who have brought into this world a blessing have been preparing themselves for a big change in their life. They have been learning and educating themselves about how to be a good mother. Many mothers find it really hard to transition from being an independent woman without children to becoming a mother (Corrigan, Kwasky, & Groh, 2015). Adapting to motherhood can be a drastic change, and usually creates challenges that lead to feeling overwhelmed (Leger & Letourneau, 2015). When a newly mother begins experiencing stress or becomes emotional then there can be a possibility that they can encounter Postpartum Depression (Leger et al., 2015). Postpartum depression can be seen and experienced in many different ways, it all varies on every mother (Corrigan et al., 2015). Many different mental health issues can be seen including baby blues, postpartum depression, postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the most serious, postpartum psychosis (Tam & Leslie, 2001).
I have spent most of my life as an older brother. My little brother, Quinn, was born on July 26th in 2005. I don’t remember much about it though because I was only three. My parents tell me I was never jealous of Quinn, like most little children are once a sibling comes into the world. My brother and I have become great friends, we fight alot, but then again what brothers don’t. We share many things, Our Computer, PlayStation, Video games, and even some clothes. It sucks sometimes but It also makes us closer in an odd way. My brother and I look very similar despite the three year age gap. Whenever we go places we are always asked if we are twins. One time someone even mistook me for my brother and congratulated me for a speech he had just done.