The Body 's Defense Mechanism

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Urosepsis is known to be caused by the invasion of the body’s defense mechanism due to an infection. This results in the infectious organisms’ infection and multiplying in the blood. It begins with an infection of the urinary tract or obstruction of the urine. A UTI is the inflammation of the urinary epithelium caused by stomach or intestinal microbia. Leading cause of sepsis is gram-positive bacterial sepsis, however other causes include gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. If a gram-positive bacteria is the cause of the infection it will release exotoxins such as peptidoglycans, lipoteichoic acids, superantigens within the body’s defense system. This in turn will trigger a release of proinflammatory cytokines which activate the complement system, coagulation system, kinin system, neutrophils, endothelial and monocyte-macrophage cell activity. These systems and cell activity release anti-inflammatory cytokines such as LPS binding protein, IL-1 or IL-10 receptor antagonist, nitric oxide and other anti-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-inflammatory cytokines cause endothelial cell dysfunction leading to cell adhesion, tissue hypoxia, apoptosis, impaired vascular tone, microvascular thrombus, capillary leak and free radical damage. The combination of these dysfunctions will result in multiple organ dysfunction. Multiple organ dysfunction is recognized by altered mental status, hypotension tachycardia, p/f ratio less than 300 tachypnea, urine secretion less than 0.5

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