The Bridge Between the World and Cognition: A Comparison of the Use of Metaphor in Professional, Popular and Pedagogic Science

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Assignment 2 Option 1
1. Introduction
Language represents human’s experiences and different fields hold different ways of language using. The language of science actively constructs scientific reality, i.e. a way of looking at the world, the roles assigned to readers and the way of organizing information (LING337-nominalisation). However, science may be presented diversely according to the different intended audience, purposes and modes. Three texts chosen in this paper are all concerned with the same scientific reality, but their language differs widely. The ways in which science are presented in this three texts largely depends on their audience, purposes and modes. To put it another way, language of science in the chosen texts
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The target readers of Text 1 are the popular audience and it only reports the results of the research rather than doing experiments. So, it uses less technical language. Throughout the whole text, it can be found only one technical language used for definition in paragraph 5: “For instance, lactose tolerance – the ability to drink milk as an adult – probably evolved when farming spread”. Text 2, purposed to teach science, utilizes no typical means of creating technical language that mentioned above, but it has many proper names. For example, “La Brana 1 and 2” in paragraph 6, “UV radiation” and “vitamin D” in paragraph 11 and “lactose-intolerant” and “starch” in paragraph 14. Text 3, the professional one, owns the most technical language to ensure its objectivity, authenticity and validity. At the first glance of this text, the technical language with the way of composition can be found: “Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionizing the field of ancient DNA (aDNA), and have enabled the sequencing of complete ancient genomes, such as that of Ötzi, a Neolithic human body found in the Alps”. What’s more, taking paragraph 5 (a very short one) as an example, there are altogether five proper names, namely, “LA Brana genome”, “allele”, “lactose intolerance”, “salivary amylase’ and “starch”.

2.3 Lexical density
Vocabulary is a basic feature of language and lexical density is closely
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