Poliomyelitis was a highly infectious disease that spread through many Americans in the early 20th century. As a matter of fact, over 3,000 Americans died of the disease each year. Families were overwhelmingly desperate for doctors to find a cure. When one suffered from polio, they generally experienced painful symptoms which included not only fatigue and muscle weakness, but even death. Therefore, when the polio vaccine was introduced by scientist Jonas Salk in 1953, it greatly contributed to Americans in numerous positive ways. Environmentally, the vaccine saved countless young American lives affected by the disease thus decreasing American mortality rates. Socially, the polio vaccine convenienced families who were either directly afflicted
He knew that Polio caused paralysis, and invaded the nervous system. As a result, he wanted to end the greatest epidemic in America at that time. As he began researching, the president of the March of Dimes Foundation, Basal O’Connor, wanted to help Salk create the Polio vaccination. His goal was to fund Salk to find a cure against Paralytic Poliomyelitis, or Polio. Jonas devoted the next 8 years of his life working to develop the vaccine. He finally was able to create the vaccine, using formaldehyde, or a chemical compound. Salk used the killed Polio virus to immunize without being infected, or becoming infected after the injection. Soon after the vaccine was created, they began to test it on monkeys; and then they tested it on children who already had Polio at the Watson Institute. After that trial was done, the testing spread to volunteers who wanted the vaccine; this included Jonas, his wife, and his family. By 1954, national testing began on children between the ages of 6-9. On April 12, 1955, they were able to conclude that the vaccine was safe and effective. Salk became known as a miracle worker, although he remained selfless. Jonas wanted no major payment, or recognition for the creation of the vaccine. In fact, he credited that the vaccine creation was accomplished due to the help of John Enders, a Harvard researcher. Enders was the man
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a disease that attacks the nervous tissue in the spinal cord and the brain stem resulting in paralysis (Document One). Polio is caused by the poliovirus, but it is unknown how this virus is acquired. The virus enters the digestive tract and stays in the intestines for up to eight weeks, and then attacks the lymphatic system, the blood stream and eventually travels to the brain and spine (Document Four). Once it is infected in one’s body, the disease is highly contagious and can be spread through contact of saliva, food, germs, or feces (Document Two). “The poliovirus causes most of its infections in the summer and fall. At one time, summer epidemics of polio were common and greatly feared” (Document Four). This may
Polio, something that can devastate anyone and everyone so very quickly. In 1953, you didn’t know when you could be infected with this life threatening disease.
With a substantial amount of preventive healthcare advancements behind them, the American medical community turned its attention to the deadly polio virus plaguing America. From 1937 to 1952, known cases of Americans contracting polio skyrocketed from ten thousand to a staggering figure of roughly fifty-seven thousand cases. Of those cases within that time period, approximately one thousand five hundred deaths as a result of polio were recorded. In the year 1953, The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis provided the scientist Dr. Jonas Salk with the tools necessary to research, and develop a working vaccine to combat the devastating polio disease. After much trial and error, Dr. Salk was finally able to create what he felt was a successful polio vaccination, and proceeded to conduct a field test. After resounding success, manufacturing instructions for the Salk vaccine were sent to a series of scientific laboratories for immediate production and administration to American children. The disaster that occurred next will forever be known through American medical history as the Cutter Incident (named so after one of the labs that administered the polio vaccine). This medical crisis sent shockwaves throughout America and the medical community, and numerous lawsuits were filed against Cutter Laboratories, resulting in fewer and fewer labs willing to accept contract work in developing vaccines.
With the last outbreak of Polio in the US being in 1979, many today have no recollection of the terror of this disease. The disease primarily infected children, and there seemed to be no pattern to who succumbed to it. No one could feel safe. Polio as a disease presents such horrors that even those who overcome it once can be plagued by its aftereffects in later life. Before vaccines, single outbreaks could devastate entire communities. One outbreak
Polio had already killed 3,000 people at its peak rate in 1952; sadly, it had already paralyzed thousands of more people (Soylent 1)On April 12, 1955 the polio vaccine developed by Salk was allowed to be used by the public after it had been tested with 1.8 million children (Biography 1). The vaccine had drastically reduced the number of polio cases in children by 90%; 57,000 cases were recorded in 1952 and less than one thousand cases a decade later (Soylent 1). In addition, Jonas Salk later established his own institution for research named Salk Center for Biological Studies in 1963. The institution “remains one of the world's most prestigious facilities for research into AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's
Franklin D. Roosevelt suffered from polio while he served as the President of the United States. Polio is a virus that causes paralysis, and can even lead to death. Before the polio vaccination was introduced in 1955, the virus had claimed thousands of victims over the years. (“Polio”). Today, vaccinations are available to the public in order to keep viruses like polio from causing an epidemic. A vaccination is the injection of a weakened disease or virus, in order for your body to build up immunity against a certain illness (Davidson). Vaccinations have become a controversial subject because of the side effects, the ingredients used and the idea of protecting the herd.
Immunizations have lowered the morbidity rate over the course of many years. Before vaccines were introduced, during 1900 through 1904, an average of 48,164 cases and 2528 deaths were caused by both severe and mild forms of smallpox in the United States. After the smallpox vaccine was introduced, the disease ceased to stop and the last case to ever be reported was in 1929. Getting vaccinated against the smallpox actually eradicated the disease, meaning it has been wiped out. Next, in 1951- 1954, on average, 16,316 polio cases and 1879 polio deaths were reported each year. Once the polio vaccine was introduced, less that 1000 cases were reported in 1962. As of 1991, wild-type polio viruses have been eliminated from the Western Hemisphere. But
Dr. Jonas Salk was born October 28th, 1914 in New York City. He went to school at the New York University School of Medicine. Salk earned his medical degree at this university, and then chose to do medical research instead of a practicing physician. In 1948, he started a project funded by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to figure out the different kinds of polio. Salk protested for mandatory vaccination. At the start of the 20th century, nurses and physicians made house to house trips to spot all infected people. Dr. Jonas Salk tested many different vaccines on monkeys, in the end, Salk effectively vaccinated 1,000 monkeys with his new vaccine. On April 12, 1955, Dr. Thomas Francis Jr declared Dr. Salk’s vaccine safe and effective.
When hygienic conditions were poor polio attacked infants. The disease was spread by contaminated water and contact with fecal contamination. Many infants died when the conditions were poor. But as conditions improved the virus spread differently. It was spread more through playmates and family members, the contamination came from the
Vaccine-derived polioviruses: This is a very rare strain of poliovirus that is create by the mutation of the virus in the OPV. The OPV enters the intestine and multiplies. After it get absorbed into the bloodstream it activates the immune system. When the patient is excreting the virus it can change and be genetically altered. To get paralysed from this type of poliovirus is very rare. THe paralytic type of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis only occurs in 1 of 2.7million. If a community is not fully vaccinated then the viruses will survive longer and will undergo more mutations as long as it is being spread around. If there is a case of vaccine-derived poliovirus, the oral vaccine will be given to prevent the spread of the disease from the patient.
The poliovirus is one of the most transmittable and most contagious viruses that the human population has come in contact with. The structure of the poliovirus allows it to be able to bind to motor neuron cells within a host’s body and reproduce quickly. Like all virus’s, the poliovirus