Many of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease cause problems because they lead to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing and thickening of arteries and develops for years without causing symptoms. It can happen in any part of the body. Around the heart, it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs it is known as peripheral arterial disease. The narrowing and thickening of the arteries is due to the deposition of fatty material, cholesterol and other substances in the walls of blood vessels. The deposits are known as plaques. The rupture of a plaque can lead to stroke or a heart attack. (World Heart Federation).
There are eight major contributors that result in heart disease: heredity, smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol (LDL), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, and arterial inflammation. The remaining seven contributors can be controlled, or at least reduced to safer levels that will help prevent or even reverse the disease, prevent a heart attack, and prolong one’s life.
Individuals are more likely to develop CVD if they have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, are obese, use tobacco, eat a poor diet, or are not physically active. Most clinical risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease can be modified by practicing healthy lifestyle and behavior choices (Yu, Rimm, Lu, Rexrode, Albert, Qi, Willet, Hu, & Manson 2016).
Coronary heart disease occurs when plaque builds up on the walls of the coronary arteries. Blood, rich in oxygen, flows through these arteries to the heart, so when the plaque builds up on the walls, it narrows and blocks blood flow. If a blood clot forms from a ruptured plaque buildup,
While some risk factors cannot be changed, it is important to know realize that you do have control of others. By making changes to your lifestyle, you can reduce your risk of heart disease. These types of risk factors include things like smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high LDL or “bad” cholesterol. These changes may be done gradually. They don’t have to be done all at once. The key is to simply make healthy changes. (“Risk Factors for Heart Disease”)
“CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due to the buildup of cholesterol and other material, called plaque, on their inner walls. This buildup is called atherosclerosis. As it grows, less blood can flow
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood, and valves. The cardiovascular system is able to transport things such as oxygen, nutrients, cell wastes, hormones and other substances vital for the maintenance of homeostasis as well as cell life through blood. The hearts function is to pump the blood in and out of the heart to propel it throughout the rest of the body. Deoxygenated blood enters through the pulmonary circuit through the superior and inferior vena cavae and dumps into the right atrium, then travels through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve and out of the pulmonary arteries. When the blood exits the pulmonary arteries into the lungs, gas exchange occurs. Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circuit through the right and left pulmonary veins into the left atrium, through the bicuspid or mitral valve into the left ventricle through the aortic valve and out of the aorta to the rest of the body and back again. The valves of the body carry the blood and help to manage blood pressure throughout the
In addition to high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and smoking also contribute to CHD. On the average, each of these doubles your chance of developing heart disease. Therefore, a person who has all three risk factors is eight times more likely to develop heart disease than someone who has none. Obesity and physical inactivity are other factors that can lead to CHD. Overweight increases the likelihood of developing high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure, and physical inactivity increases the risk of heart attack. Regular exercise, good nutrition, and smoking cessation are key to controlling the risk factors for CHD.
The fibrous plaque is often elevated and protrudes into the vessel lumen, partially or completely obstructing blood flow through the artery (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2010). When the coronary arteries are unable to meet the cardiac muscle’s need for oxygen an imbalance occurs resulting in stable angina or unstable angina. With stable angina the plaque is “fixed” and is associated with chest discomfort in response to activities. Whenever the plaque that has been accumulating in the arteries ruptures the body responds by platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and vasoconstriction as an inflammatory response known as acute coronary syndrome or unstable angina. This in turn narrows the blood vessels and can cause an increase in obstruction of the artery. Once the artery has plaque accumulation of 40%, blood flow starts being blocked. The amount of blood flow blocked through occlusion of the artery determines the disease process.
Some of the Risk factors include: a high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and diabetes. There have been many breakthroughs in CVD such as genetic testing and although they have been studying the heart for 50 years, they are nowhere near finished. Not until they find a
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately five liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ, also known as the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist. Even when it is at rest, the average heart easily pumps over 5 liters of blood throughout the body every minute.18
Diabetes. Patients with diabetes carry an increased risk of coronary artery disease due to the similarity of the high blood pressure.
The heart, blood vessels, and the blood itself are what the cardiovascular system is composed of. The heart, being the most important part of this system, is uniquely designed, and is the body 's pump. It allows for every part of the body to receive the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function properly and efficiently.
**Coronary heart disease risk factors: age (45 or older for men, 55 or older for women), family history of premature heart disease, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, low HDL (less than 35), diabetes. HDL of 60 or more protects against heart disease, effectively subtracting one risk