The Cardiovascular System Responses During Submaximal Exercise ( Cvd )

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Information on cardiovascular differences between the sexes is necessary for allied health professionals to best adapt rehabilitation exercises for the patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The cardiovascular system has to adjust in response to metabolic demands of working muscles during exercise. Gender-related differences on how the body meets the increased demands while still maintaining homeostatic arterial blood pressure has been widely researched (CITE). There is some support that vaso-regulation differences are due to female sex hormones (estrogen, in particular estradiol), and less sympathetic nervous system influence when compared to males (CITE). Additionally, body composition (higher muscle mass in males) and substrate utilisation (more lipid substrate utilisation in females) have been found to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system responses during submaximal exercise (CITE). Upper body exercise has been found to create more stress on the cardiovascular system compared to lower body exercise (CITE). The primary causes of death in the Australian population are directly or indirectly related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (CITE). Although, men are at greater risk for developing CVD, women have been found to have a higher morbidity rate post-surgery (CITE). Additionally, the presentation of symptoms for female differs to that of their male counterparts (CITE). Thus, further investigation to better understand the differences

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