The Causes And Impacts Of A Natural Disaster

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Background
A natural disaster is a critical phenomenon of a natural process from the earth such as an earthquake, flood, drought or typhoon which impacts significantly on human life and human social activities (March, 2002; Hutton, 2008). These natural disasters suddenly disturb a population everyday life placing them into a helpless state of emergency and suffering. The greater magnitude of the disaster is, the bigger it exerts pressure on the local resources and infrastructure to a breaking point where provision such as medical and nursing care, transportation of food and protection against harsh weather condition is shortage. Also by overwhelming the local resources, the normal smooth running of the community becomes a catastrophic stage (Dilley, et al., 2005; WHO, 2018).
WHO (2018) states that natural disasters are accountable for approximately 90,000 deaths and a further 160 million people’s lives are impacted worldwide every year. In additional, although people could survive from the disasters, the instant impact on human lives including the direct destruction of property, the environment and infrastructure cause damage for their health status both physical and psychological , well-being and quality of life with long term period (Wisner, et al., 2004). Several studies (Hutton, 2008; Cherniack, 2008; Jia, et al., 2010; Giuliani, et al., 2014) have found that older people are one of the most vulnerable population in emergency status and the most impacted in natural disasters during the initial exposure to the disaster. However, the impact on longer term health outcomes has been inconclusive (Rafiey, et al., 2016).
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (2010) reports that the most harmful natural disasters in the past epoch are earthquakes. It is a phenomenon which a plate (the earth crust) in the basement of the earth deviates and move and this can come to the ground and leads to shake. It can result in collapse of buildings and distorting or destroying road, railway lines and bridges. Moreover, it happens when the waves moving occur at seafloor, it can cause tsunami also triggers landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity (Rooney, 2006; WHO, 2018). An earthquake is a devastating
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