The Cellular Basis of Cancer

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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide as it can develop in almost any organ or tissue. Significant advances in understanding the cellular basis of cancer and the underlying biological mechanisms of tumour has been vastly improved in the recent years (Jiang et al. 1994). Cancer is a genetic disease which requires a series of mutation during mitosis to develop, its characteristics can be associated with their ability to grow and divide abnormal cells uncontrollable while in the mean time invade and cause nearby blood vessels to serve its need. Even though many people are affected by cancer today, the abilities which cancer cells have make it hard to find a single effective treatment for cancer. The focus of research now lies…show more content…
This ability of malign cancer to make their way across basement membrane and into blood vessels is what makes cancer so fatal and impossible to be cure by surgery alone. The result of metastasis and invasion in normal tissue by cancer cells are often seen as one of the distinctive features of malignancy (Ruoslahti 1996). Even though the ability of invasion and metastasis are one of the hallmarks for cancer, these abilities are not unique to cancer cells as it can also occur during the early development stage of the embryo, in healthy organisms and in many noncancerous diseases (Mareel & Leroy 2003). It does not matter whenever the organism has developed benign or malign cancer, all cancer cells have the ability to disturb the normal cell cycle and threaten the survival of the organism. The uncontrollable spread of cancer is the principal event which leads to the death in individuals with cancer and it is the greatest barrier of developing cures for cancer. Metastasis is the progressive spread of malignant cancer cells from the primary tumour to secondary organ in distant sites and this potential is dependent on the specific microenvironment which support them to complete each step of the metastatic process (Poste & Fidler 1980). To understand the molecular basis of metastasis, investigators have now separated the complex and highly selective metastasis process into series of steps to try and solve the problems cause by
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