The Chronic Disease Burden Has Increased The Need For A Statewide And National Approach

3705 WordsSep 7, 201415 Pages
The chronic disease burden has increased the need for a statewide and national approach in its detection, prevention, and treatment of heart failure. In the state of Indiana heart disease is shown to be leading the way with a total of 13,394 individuals who have died in 2013 (Indiana State, 2013). The health indicators show that although the mortality rate has decreased from 42.3 per 100,000 in 2001 to 37.3 per 100,000 hospitalization rates have increased (Center for Disease, 2011). Heart failure rehospitalization rate has increased from 2007-2011 especially in those who are over the age of 85. In 2011, there were a total of 41.9 per 1,000 hospitalizations due to heart failure. This is gradually increasing from the Healthy People 2020…show more content…
The cardiac muscle cells can be affected by heart disease through the inability to maintain its homeostasis through the calcium pump. If there is excess calcium within the heart it results in the in ability of the heart muscle to relax. As a result, the ADP/ATP ratio increases, phosphocreatine decreases, and energy stores are depleted. Furthermore, this imbalance affects the energy needed to relax the left ventricle. Secondly, diastolic heart failure can occur from changes in preload, afterload, renin-angiotension-aldosterone system, and the sympathetic nervous system. These changes affect the fibrillar collagen within the extracellular matrix that affects the ability of the ventricular to relax. These changes along with those compensatory mechanisms results in continuous resistance that results in increased in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (McCance & Huether, 2010). Systolic heart failure results from the inability of the cardiac muscle to contract effectively from inadequate cardiac output. As the cardiac output drops, compensatory mechanisms to try to restore its function through takes place by ventricular remodeling. During this remodeling phase, the heart begins to develop changes in its size and becomes hypertrophic that results in a decreased ability of the heart to contract, decreased available oxygen, and available ATP. Secondly, this hypertrophic states increases preload that results
Open Document