The Civil Rights Movement Essay

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The Civil Rights Movement
The 13th amendment, passed on the first of January, 1865 abolished slavery throughout America. Although African Americans were considered free after this amendment was approved, they still had a long and arduous struggle to absolute freedom. Before the Civil Rights Act of 1964, segregation in the United States was frequently used throughout many of the Southern and Border States. Schools, bathrooms, libraries, and even water fountains were segregated. Though there were some laws that prevented segregation and discrimination at this time, they were not strongly enforced. Civil rights activists, revolting of being denied their rights as Americans, attempted to put an end to segregation and discrimination in America
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If the front half of the bus, reserved for whites, became completely occupied African Americans were required to give their seats to the white riders (Montgomery Bus Boycott). A white person would refuse to sit in the same row as an African American. African Americans were treated in a discourteous and cruel manner by white bus drivers. For example, it was not uncommon for bus drivers to drive off before African Americans had the opportunity to get on the bus. And yet when African Americans did board the bus, they were required to pay their fair at the front of the bus and then exit the bus and re-enter through the back door. These same white bus drivers were also known to physically beat African American passengers. Some of these violent confrontations stemmed to arrests of blacks (Rosenberg). Black organizations such as the Women’s Political Council, or WPC, were formed with a goal of the abolition of segregation on city buses.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott started in 1955 with a forty-two-year-old seamstress named Rosa Parks, one of many civil rights activists and a former secretary of the local NAACP, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (Rosenberg). On December 1, 1955 after an endless day of working at the Montgomery Fair department store, Rosa Parks boarded her bus sitting in the row behind the section reserved for whites. When a group of whites board the bus at the following stop,
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