The Civil Rights Movement - Main Events

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Civil Rights Movement – Background Info
1619 – Africans arrived in Jamestown, Virginia
1660s – Slavery officially began when laws in Virginia and Maryland were passed. The trade lasted until 1808.
South Cotton – Most slaves went to the agricultural southern states where they grew cotton for the massive textile mills in England.
Abolitionists – ‘Underground Railways’ – People who fought against the slave system. There was even a underground railroad that helped escaping slaves reach the northern states.
War of Independence – Many African Americans fought in this war hoping that once the colony was freed from British country, the ideas of freedom and equality would also include them.
1866 Civil Rights Act – This act ‘protected’
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Board of Education
- I 1954, the Courte unanimously agreed that “the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place in the nation’s public schools” was against the American constitution
- By the end of 1955, over 500 schools were integrated

White Backlash Against Decision
- Southern leaders decide that they would defy the Supreme Court’s decision
- The KKK, White Citizens councils and other white supremacist or hate groups underwent a revival.
- Emmett Till gets killed while on holiday in the south. Due to all the negative views towards them, people start supporting the murderers and they are found not guilty
- 1956 – Atheline Lucy is the first African American student to attend the University of Alabama. On the day she began, riots broke out on campus and a mob of almost 1000 men surrounded the car in which she had to be driven in between classes
- In 1995, the Supreme Court said that states should desegregate schools with “all deliberate speed”

Montgomery, Alabama
- In 1947, CORE organised the Journey of Reconciliation. This was where black and white members travelled on buses in southern states to challenge segregated travel.
- The Journey of Reconciliation was quickly ended when most of the riders were arrested
- In 1952, forty-eight African American solders
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