The Classroom and Learning a Second Language

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There is only one reason could be considered why learners decide to use L1 in the classroom. This is because the teacher’s efforts encourage them to communicate in the target language. Harmer (2002) maintains that the second language users choose to use the mother tongue when there is no compatible with their L2 level. When the teacher does not create an environment for students to communicate naturally to use English, students may need to use L1 to communicate. If the teacher does not use the target language too much so that students may feel free to use their mother tongue in the second language classroom. Thus, some different learning styles can be implemented that enable students to use the target language much more easily.
Learners and teachers of L2 used their L1 in classroom for few reasons which are proficiency level, for comprehension, affective factor and to express feelings and thoughts.

2.2.1 Proficiency level
Learning a new language might be frustrating for students who have low proficiency level. Difficulties in producing sentences with correct use of grammar and appropriate choice of words is somewhat common amongst students whose ability to acquire an L2 is low. Thus, switching to L1 is the easiest way to overcome those problems. Bouangeune (2009) stated that L1 makes an important contribution to English teaching mostly in the area of vocabulary for students with a lower proficiency level. However, using L1 is harmless in any L2 classroom as it could be
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