The Cold War Era As A Dynamic Political Standpoint Based On Its Own Needs

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1. Introduction

Since in 1949 Mao Zedong declared the existence of People’s Republic of China, self-interest has been playing a crucial role in China’s foreign policy because of its special geographical contiguity with both the Soviet bloc and capitalist camp and a dynamic political standpoint based on its own needs. The Cold War era as the early stage of China’s development which included complex interactions with multiple powers through dimensions in ideology, national security, economics and influences would be an ideal paradigm of this idea. (Chen, 2001) Figure I, the first picture on “The Cold War”, Wikipedia, is a perfect illustration of the Cold War period: Apparently, backed by NATO and Warsaw Pact separately, the United States
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(Zhai, 2015) When China stood by the Soviet side, the United States was threated tactically, but once it leaned to the other side, the Soviet Union was destroyed strategically. And the law of history will tell us, China is still adopting a similar self-interest driven strategy in foreign policy on modern international stage. (Bowker, 2008)

2. Ideology and Security: with the USSR & Neighbors

2.1. Civil War and “Honeymoon” with the Soviet Union By the end of World War II, the civil war erupted between the Nationalist-controlled government headed by Chiang Kai-shek and the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong. The two armed parties had put aside their antagonism, at least nominally, as they confronted Japanese invaders, but after the defeat of Japan it was apparent that they were preparing to resume the struggle for control of the country. (Cohen, 2011) The military and diplomatic leaders from both the United States and Soviet Union were optimistic towards Chiang and speculating at China’s situation. Washington, with Chiang’s American friends and others hostile to communism, attempted to avert civil war, mediating between the two sides and creating a peace agreement, while the Moscow hoping to have communist control the North-east so that it can enlarge its allies in Mongolia, North-east China and North Korea. (Shen & Li, 2011) However, Mao’s unexpected victory and Chiang’s fleer to Taiwan totally
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