The Collective Self Esteem And Social Identity Theory

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Introduction Collective self-esteem is a theoretical construct that operationalizes the measurement of an individual’s evaluation of his or her ascribed group memberships as they relate to feelings of personal worth and self-esteem (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1990). Based on social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 1986), the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES; Luhtanen & Crocker, 1990; 1992) was conceived and developed as a trait-based assessment tool for measuring individual differences in general collective self-esteem relating to the totality of an individual’s group memberships. Social identity theory posits that an individual’s awareness of belonging to multiple social groups, together with his or her cognitive and affective evaluation of these memberships, is an important element of the individual’s self-concept (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992; Tajfel, 1981; Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 1986). Furthermore, the theory asserts that individuals engage not only in strategies for maintaining and augmenting a positive personal identity; they also engage in group-level strategies aimed at establishing and defending a positive collective identity (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992; Tajfel, 1981; Tajfel & Turner, 1986). The creators of the CSES viewed the self-esteem measures available at the time as excessively individualistic, failing to capture crucial social evaluations and feelings thought to be important for a more complete understanding individual identity and other psychological and
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