The Common Genetic Birth Defects

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One of the most common genetic birth defects is Down syndrome which is a congenital disorder caused from a chromosome defect. It causes impairments and physical abnormalities. This is a condition where a child is born with an extra copy of their 21st chromosome. According to the National Down Syndrome Society (NDSS), 1 in 700 babies are born with DS. There is not an exact cause of how DS happens but there is an explanation as to what happens. When there is any case of reproduction, genes from both parents are passed to the children. Within these genes there are chromosomes and the child is supposed to receive 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 total. Children with DS end up with 3 copies or an extra partial copy of chromosome 21 instead of 2…show more content…
Children with DS often grow slowly and as they become an adult they are shorter than normal. Their neck can have excess fat and skin which makes it look shorter than normal. Short, stocky arms and legs along with a wide space between the big toe and second toe is also a physical body symptom. As for face shapes and features they can have slanted eyes, nasal bridge that looks pushed in, small ears that look low on the head, irregularly shaped mouth and tongue. A child’s tongue can partly stick out and the teeth can come in late and in a different order than other children. Most children with DS have mild to moderate cognitive disabilities such as impulsive behavior, short attention span and slow learning capabilities. Some health issues that are often symptoms of DS are heart defects, hypothyroidism, eye conditions, hearing and dental problems, respiratory infections and depression. (What is Down Syndrome) Children and adults with DS can face many major health concerns during their life. A few of the most common include repetitive and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, autism spectrum conditions, neuropsychological problems, and inattentive behaviors. Young children with DS that have “limitations in language and communication skills, cognition, and non-verbal problem solving abilities present with increased likelihood of developing: Disruptive, impulsive, inattentive, hyperactive and oppositional behaviors; anxious,
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