The Complex Relationship Between Community And The Community, Offenders, And Staff

3377 WordsMar 11, 201514 Pages
Correctional agencies all have the need to produce clear and concise written directives for the community, offenders, and staff. Since the early 1960, debates on how to improve the correctional policy have increased. Two major concerns are the community and offenders entering the system. Yet, the community is very complex with conflicting components. While developing a significant policy, “the complex relationship between community structure and norms concerning correctional programs (Duffeer and Ritti, 2006)” must be considered. In the 1960s, use of litigation as a tool for seeking civil rights for African-Americans, especially in areas such as school desegregation, voting rights, and housing discrimination, provided a model for policy…show more content…
Federal and State judges in the United States courts possessed the authority to examine whether the practices and conditions in correctional institutions comport with constitutional standards for the protection of offenders’ rights. The judicial branch of government’s decisions established the legal standards for prison conditions and the treatment of prisoners. During the 1980s and 1990s, however the U.S. Supreme Court and Congress used their authority to force a deceleration of Federal judges’ involvement in correctional management. (Smith, 1997) Court decisions and legislation narrowed the definitions of prisoners’ rights, required greater judicial deference to correctional administrators, and limited both prisoners’ effective utilization of civil rights litigation and Federal judges’ remedial authority. (Smith, 1997) A number of states expanded community corrections programs, drug treatment, and other sentencing alternatives, partially as an attempt to control growth of prison expansion. Programs based on deterrence, incapacitation and increased control do not reduce future criminal activities of offenders and delinquents. Because of the many changes and upgrades to technology, correctional personnel, prison population, and the privatization of corrections will more than likely produce new issues that will attract judicial attention throughout the litigation process. Other developments have helped make considerations of policies to reduce prison
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