The Complicated and Yet Essential Process of Vaccine Development

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Vaccine development is a long-lasting and complicated process, but it is essential for both human and animal population. Nowadays, to assess the potency of a vaccine, the majority of analyses are based on antibodies, which are highly expensive, difficult to handle, store and administer. This project suggests developing a novel vaccine relying on a cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which will elicit T-cell mediated immunity upon administration to the chicken. Here we show the strategy of achieving the main goal: firstly, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the component of negative-bacterial cell membrane, will be incorporated into liposomes in vitro. The endotoxin concentration will be analyzed by EndoLISA. Second, chicken will receive LPS, which hypothetically will induce amplification of Th1 cells, which, in turn, will activate IFN-gamma, and thus increase T-cell mediated immunity. The quantification of IFN-gamma will be analyzed by the real-time PCR. Our results will demonstrate that a strong immune response can be triggered by activating T-cell mediated immunity as we expect high increase in IFN-gamma in chicken. We anticipate that the novel vaccine will be cheaper than conventional types of vaccines, and will be beneficial for those who mainly work in the farms and poultry product factories. Significance Gram-negative bacteria cause numerous diseases and can affect all classes of poultry. Moreover, some of these bacteria can cause life-threatening complications and
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