However, acute kidney injury is complications are reversible. Patients with life threatening conditions are more susceptible to developing this disorder. Acute kidney injury is commonly developed after either chronic hypotension or hypovolemia or exposure to a nephrotoxic agent. With increased levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and potassium with or without a reduction in urine output develops acute kidney injury over hours or days (Lewis, 2014, p. 1101-1102). High incidents of hospitalized patients develop AKI, one out of five, and a high mortality rate. (Lewis, 2014, pp. 1101-1102)
The kidneys filter fluid and waste products from the blood into the urine, but when the heart cannot pump adequately, the kidneys malfunction and cannot remove excess fluid from the blood. This is because when the heart is no longer pumping efficiently it becomes congested with blood, causing pressure to build up in the main vein connected to the kidneys and leading to even more congestion of blood, except this time in the kidneys as well. The kidneys also suffer from the reduced supply of oxygenated blood because of decreased pulmonary circulation. Both of these when combined together are the main factors as to why kidney filtration decreases due to left sided heart failure.
Every day the kidney’s filter on an average of about 120 to 150 quarts of blood that produces 1 to 2 quarts of urine that has extra fluid and waste. The importance of the kidney is to keep the blood stable so the body can function properly. The fluids that are removed from the body help prevent blood cells and large molecules (proteins) from passing. Once filtered it can pass through the tubule that sends minerals back into the blood stream to remove waste (niddk.nih.gov).
Kidney Failure patients always experience a series of urine changes like frequent urination at night, decreased urine output, bubbly urine, blood urine and urgent urine and so on. All these symptoms are related with urinary system. Well, how does kidney failure affect the urinary system on earth?
Both of our kidneys functions to filter and excrete waste products and toxins by regulating fluids, electrolytes, and acid based balance. If the Renal blood flow is altered then the glomerular filtration rate will be altered as well. A decrease in systemic pressure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to constrict the renal artery and decreases filtration and secretion in the kidney. In addition, a tubular obstruction can lead to the reduction of Glomerular filtration rate. An elevated intracellular calcium level due to tubular damage may alter cellular level that increases tubuloglomerular feedback and diminishes GFR. This may be prerenal, intrarenal, or postrenal. The prerenal will result from any condition outside of the kidney that disables the blood to flow to the renal vasculature causing a decrease in perfusion in the glomerulus leading to oliguria. However, both of the kidneys can still return to its full normal function on this stage. Second of the three is intrarenal, where anything can cause a direct damage to both of the kidneys such as infections, toxins, reduce blood supply, hypertension, diabetes, and even glomerulonephritis. The most common intrarenal condition is Acute Tubular Necrosis, where the epithelial layer of the nephrons are damaged causing a change in the concentration of urine, waste filtration, and an imbalance in electrolytes and acid
In the human body, there are systems that provide different functions and help the body to operate more efficiently. The urinary system is one in particular designed to help the body remain free of excess that we no longer need. “The urinary tract is the drainage system used for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. The kidneys are a pair of “bean-shaped” organs, each about the size of a fist. The kidneys are located below the ribs, one on each side of the spine, towards the middle of the back.” (NIDDK, 2013) Every several minutes, your kidneys filter around three ounces of blood, also then removing wastes and extra water. That extra water and
The kidneys are important organs in your body to help filter waste. Sometimes organs may fail and cause further problems within your body. There are treatments available for kidney failure including dialysis and a kidney transplant. Both treatments do involve life changes and the patient must stay healthy. It is important to learn about your body and learn the signs and symptoms of when something goes wrong.
Calcium modifications are the results of to low or to high calcium levels. When calcium levels are to low compromises in bone integrity will occur. Adults 50 years of age and older are encouraged to increase calcium intake to help prevent osteoporosis. Patients with thyroid dysfunctions may experience low hormone levels causing low calcium secretion. Kidney disease, liver disease and pancreatitis also decrease the calcium level due to the effects of absorptions of vitamins and minerals in the body. Patients that have a calcium deficiency are encouraged to
In Kidney failure cases urea, creatine, uric acids and electrolytes move from the blood to the dialysate with the net effect of lowering their concentration in the blood. RBC s WBC s and plasma proteins are too large to diffuse through the pores of the membrane. Hemodialysis patient are exposed to 120 to 130 L of water during each dialysis treatment. Small molecular weight substances can pass from the dialysate in to patient’s blood. So the purity of water used for dialysis is monitored and controlled.
Kidney failure is the result of kidney disease that has either not been treated, or failed to respond to treatment. Some kidney diseases are: Acute kidney failure (potentially reversible), Acute nephritic syndrome, Goodpasture syndrome, Atheroembolic renal disease, Glomerulonephritis, Polycystic kidney disease, and chronic kidney failure (end stage) (United States National Library, 2010). The usual treatment for kidney failure is medication and dialysis. Dialysis is used for end stage kidney failure, when the patient has lost
Mr. Armstrong has a history of renal insufficiency and uncontrolled hypertension, along with symptoms of fatigue, pedal edema, and occasional shortness of breath. He does not have a history of trauma or obstruction to his kidneys, but his creatinine and BUN levels are currently at 3.5 mg/dl and 40 mg/dl. Normal creatinine concentration values are 0.7 to 1.2 mg/dl and normal BUN values are 10 to 20 mg/dl; this reveals that Mr. Armstrong’s kidneys are not removing wastes properly (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). Mr. Armstrong’s history of renal insufficiency and uncontrolled hypertension is commonly found in patients diagnosed with intrarenal (intrinsic) acute renal failure. Intrarenal acute renal failure can be categorized as
To understand what renal failure is, it is important to know how the kidneys work and what the main functions are. The body has two kidneys on either side of the spine and the kidneys work to remove toxic waste and excess water by producing urine. The kidneys also help with controlling blood pressure and produce erythropoietin as well as aiding in keeping bones strong by producing calcetrol hormones. When the kidneys are unable to perform these functions it causes the kidneys to fail.