Theories of Intelligence Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence’s (MI theory) is a valuable resource for teachers, if they understood how they could apply this in the classroom (Snowman & McCown, 2012). In this class, there are multiple intelligences observed amongst the students; however, there is minimal differentiated instruction to allow the students the best opportunities for success. It is critical that teachers understand that their teaching methods may not be wrong, but they
THE DIFFICULTIES IN DEFINING AND MEASURING INTELLIGENCE Intelligence can be described in many ways with many tests focusing on an individual’s cognitive abilities and failing to account for the social and practical aspects of intelligence. Tests to measure intelligence vary immensely and test different types of intelligence; such as Emotional Intelligence, which has proved popular in more recent years. Although researchers are unable to agree upon a general definition of intelligence they do agree that there are 2 factors to be included in a broad definition: an individual’s ability to adapt to their environment and a capacity to learn from experience (Sternberg and Detterman, 1986). Tests do not , however, measure these components
In “A Rounded Version: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”, Howard Gardner illustrates how there are a variety of intelligences. Gardner starts off with an example how IQ tests may predict achievement in school but may not predict achievement in life. After finding out certain parts of the brain are responsible for certain functions, such as “Broca’s Area” which is responsible for sentence production, Gardner proposes the existence of multiple intelligences. Multiple studies later led him to propose seven distinct intelligences; Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Each intelligence has certain classifications. According to Gardner’s classifications, I realized my intelligences are bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, and intrapersonal.
The hypothesis of different intelligences was created in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor from Harvard College. It proposes that the customary idea from claiming intelligence in view of IQ testing, will be far excessively restricted. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes nine separate intelligences that would represent a more extensive extent of mankind's possibility. These intelligences are separated into the following categories: Linguistic intelligence, Logical-mathematical intelligence, Spatial intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence, Musical intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence, Intrapersonal intelligence, and Naturalist intelligence.
When a person utters the word “intelligence,” people tend to think of a genius like Albert Einstein developing some obscure equation that the great majority of the population will never understand. The problem with the definition of intelligence is that people relate intelligence to words like “genius” which require
Highland Middle School’s greatest belief is that every student has the potential to succeed. Albert Einstein stated that “everyone is a genius, but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid”. At Highland Middle School, we understand that each student contain personal strengths and weaknesses in aspects of education. For this reason, we place a high amount of focus on incorporating Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences concept in our classrooms, lesson plans, assessments, and learning objectives. Essential elements that are conducive to implementing Gardner’s concept include allows students to have choices and let their curiosity direct their learning, incorporating technology that increases student learning outcomes, and incorporating hands-on learning opportunities throughout the school day.
Fig 2. Gardiner Multiple intelligence survey/Rodriguez ‘‘Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory can be used for curriculum development, planning instruction, selection of course activities, and related assessment strategies. Instruction which is designed to help students develop their strengths can also trigger their confidence to develop areas in which they are not as strong. Students’ multiple learning preferences can be addressed when instruction includes a range of meaningful and appropriate methods, activities, and assessments. Gardner’s early work in psychology and later in human cognition and human potential’ led to the development of the initial six intelligences. Today there are nine intelligences and the possibility of others may eventually expand the list. These intelligences (or competencies) relate to a person’s unique aptitude set of capabilities and ways they might prefer to demonstrate intellectual abilities’’ ( (Armstrong, T., 2010). Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Flynn’s sub-claim that there are seven different types of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, self-oriented personal, and other-directed personal, supports Warwick’s idea that intelligence is a multi-dimensional entity because it provides an explanation of the multi-dimensions that Warwick is talking about when referring to intelligence and increase the strength of his argument. By addressing the seven types of intelligence, Flynn is able to further support his main claim by showing that there is more to intelligence than having an avid knowledge in math and being able to read. By using this as evidence, Warwick would be able to show how measuring intelligence through a “one-dimensional single value” (202) is inaccurate, thus strengthening his argument by showing a credible source and example and further extending on Flynn’s idea of the role that sociological imagination plays when defining
Ever since Spearman proposed the intelligence theory with G factor, there were several other intelligence theories proposed in response or as an alternative to Spearman’s. Among those, Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence and Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory would be the most influential ones as they are widely accepted and used in real life. Both of the theories share a critical view towards the unitary perspective which is the traditional definition of intelligence. However, the two theories differ in which they don’t agree with what factors should be the measures of intelligence, as well as the emphasis of the two theories.
It is practically impossible for a nation’s intelligence community to detect and prevent every attack on its soil. However, the American failure to uncover the 9/11 plot should be considered a massive failure considering the scope of the attack which involved careful planning, training many perpetrators, and a high profile
Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg believe that educators should find more than one was to for individual’s intelligence to be measure in school systems. They also believe that intelligence is not based on testing there are many ways to value someone’s intelligence there are many different theories that prove that
Intelligence Definition and Measurement Defining and testing for intelligence is a controversial issue and has been since the first intelligence test was created and administered. Many forms of intelligence and achievement tests exist and using a particular test is a matter of preference and depending on the areas of intelligence is desired to be measured. This paper will start by critiquing the major definitions of intelligence, and determine the best definition for each chosen intelligence and achievement instruments. It will also evaluate the reliability, validity, normative procedures, and biasness of each intelligence measurement. The measurements will be compared and contrasted while also considering the ethical implications of
Every students has a different levels of intelligence and a very distinct styles of learning. Some preferred hands on experience and others are visual or auditory learners. No matter what it may be, our learning process help us retain information much easier. In Gardner’s Theory of multiple intelligences, he explains the seven intelligences, while Freire’s Banking concept of education views the educational system as a negative way to educate students. Both article contradicts each other. Gardener’s idea that humans have seven intelligences, connects to Freire's argument that the intelligences mentioned in Gardner's theories are not used effectively and not being challenged. Students are encouraged to conform and not questions what
Howard Gardner is a child psychologist whose work focused on stages of development, challenging typical notions of intelligence by broadening aspects of what is considered to be “smart.” In his 1983 book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, he developed a more in depth look at the educational
The theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences is a critique of the standard psychological view of intellect: there is a single intelligence, adequately measured by IQ or other short answer tests. Instead, on the basis of evidence from disparate sources, the theory claims that human beings have a number of relatively discrete intellectual capacities. IQ tests assess linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence, and sometimes spatial intelligence; they are a reasonably good predictor of who will do well in school. This is because humans have several other significant intellectual capacities (Harvard University).