The Concepts And Concerns About Performance Management

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The next section pertains the theoretical concepts and concerns about performance management. Its definition, essences and principles also purposes will be explained.
2.4.1. Definition
Many scholars have defined performance management, as it is aforementioned, the concepts itself are ambiguous and being used interchangeably with other term. The definition of performance management may be deduced from the definitions of performance and management. Performance defined as the potential for future successful implementation of actions in order to reach the objectives and targets (Lebas, 1995). Some argue that performance management extends beyond the concept of management appraisal or performance related pay of the 1980s, which address how a person should be rewarded after the completion of tasks over a given period (Mupazviriho, 2003 cited in Ohemeng, 2009), however performance management viewed not only on individual or personal appraisal, it is way beyond that, it is related with improving organizations (Armstrong, 1994) or Talbot (2010) might said improving government performance. Performance management apparently is a system through which organization set work goals, determine performance standards, assign and evaluate work, provide performance feedback, determine training and development needs, and distribute ‘rewards’ (Bouckaert & Halligan, 2008).

Moreover, Performance management can be considered in two dimensional or level, the individual
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