The Conditions Of The Marine Environment

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The conditions of the marine environment place special demands on the design and use of a camera (ERT Task Sheet, 2015). An average above surface camera cannot simply be made waterproof using a camera housing in order to operate effectively underwater. There are special demands created by various aspects of the marine environment for example, the lens must be designed specifically to recorrect the distortion created by refraction and strobes must be placed away from the camera to avoid backscatter. Refraction mainly occurs when underwater photographers use a flat port (Deep Ocean Diving - Underwater vision, n.d.). These factors would be the reason as to why the camera would not produce accurate or high quality photographs of
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In order to calculate the refractive index, this formula will be used: n_(1-2)=n_2/n_1 . For medium 1, n_1 is the absolute refractive index and for medium 2, n_2 is the absolute refractive index (Refraction of Light, 2015). When a light ray enters different medium, all molecules in that medium absorbs the light and re-emits it. This is why the light ray take longer to pass through. The more molecules the more time the light will be absorbed and re-emitted and therefore the longer it will take to pass through. Due to this difference in densities and amount of time the light ray takes to pass through, refraction occurs. This is when the light ray bends when it travels through two different mediums. This affects underwater photography as refraction occurs and the object is distorted (Underwater Holdings, 2015).

Optical Underwater Issue: Refraction in Waterproof Camera Housing Underwater
Figure 2: Flat Port and Dome Port Underwater Refraction is one of the major issues when it comes to underwater photography. Refraction is the apparent change in the speed of the light ray which results to a change in the direction of the ray (Kwon, 2015). Once light travels from air to water, it slows down as it come across the denser medium. This is a problem if all light rays could cross the dividing line at right angles. Refraction can be encountered when light travels from air to
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