The Construction Industry Has Been Plagued By Rework Problem

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INTRODUCTION For decades, the construction industry has been plagued by rework problem. Rework has become an endemic occurrence regardless of country or region, such as the UK (Barber et al., 2000, cited in Palaneeswaran, 2006), Sweden (Josephson et al., 2002), Canada (Fayek et al., 2003), South Africa (Rhodes and Smallwood, 2003, cited in Palaneeswaran, 2006), Australia (e.g. Love and Edwards, 2004; Marosszeky, 2006, cited in Palaneeswaran, 2006), China (Ye et al., 2014), Hong Kong (Palaneeswaran, 2006); or project type, such as residential, industrial and commercial building projects (Josephson and Hammarlund, 1999), building projects (Josephson and Hammarlund, 1999), engineering projects (Burati et al., 1992), transport projects (Abdul-Rahman, 1995; Nylén, 1996), as cited by Love (2002a, 2002b). This paper is motivated first, by the adverse effects of rework on construction projects. Rework has been acknowledged as being the primary factor contributing to cost overruns and schedule delays (Chan and Kumaraswamy, 1997 and Love, 2001, cited in Love, 2002a; Love, 2002b; Love and Edwards, 2004; CII, 2001b, cited in Palaneeswaran, 2006; Palaneeswaran, 2006; Hwang et al., 2009; Ye et al., 2014). These tangible costs have been found to be as high as 25% of contract value and 10% of project costs (Love and Li, 2000; Barber et al., 2000, cited in Love, 2002a and Simpeh et al., 2012). Other costs, such as additional manpower and resources for rework (Palaneeswaran, 2006; Tommelein

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