The Continuum Between Terrorism And Terrorism

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A fair amount of research has been conducted into the nexus between terrorism and narcotics traffickers in recent years. However, scholars differ regarding the extent to which these two types organizations are aligned. It has long been known that financing of terror activities using narcotics trafficking was occurring: Makarenko argues “since the end of the Cold War and the subsequent decline of state sponsorship for terrorism, organized criminal activities have become a major revenue source for terrorist groups worldwide.” She cites narcotics-terrorism interconnection as it developed in the 1980s in Latin America as the precedent, and posits that the 1990s are “the decade in which the crime-terror nexus was consolidated.” Makarenko goes on to theorize that the rise in transnational criminal networks and the changing nature of international terrorist organizations have resulted in the formation of alliances between the two types of organizations that require them to “now be viewed as a cauldron of traditional and emerging threats that interact with one another, and at times, converge.” It is in this framework that she outlines the “crime-terror continuum.” The detailed structure of the continuum consists of seven points organized into four groups: “alliances,” “operational motivations,” “convergence,” and the “black hole.” The theory states that an organization can move along the continuum between organized crime and terrorism “depending on the environment in which it
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