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It was only after Alexander’s conquest of the Greek homeland that classical ideas were put under pressure by a changing political climate and social disruption, eventually causing the expanding Greek world to turn to pragmatism and realism. The ensuing Hellenistic period saw a move towards practical applications of scientific knowledge and art styles reflecting the more complex emotions familiar to Hellenistic Greeks. However, despite changing attitudes, the ingenuity and technical proficiency of Greek individuals was generally undiminished. In mathematics, for example, Euclid (365-300 BCE) wrote 13 groundbreaking books on geometry that continued to be used until the late 19th century and “virtually invented classical (Euclidean) geometry as we know it” (Mastin, pars. 3). Archimedes, a 3rd-century BCE mathematician from Syracuse, made significant practical advances in the field of physics, inventing the compound pulley and the Archimedean screw; he famously stated, “give me a fulcrum, and I’ll shift the Earth,” affirming his faith in applied science (Cary, 349). Early biologists and naturalists of the Hellenistic period increasingly sought applications in medicine, which vastly improved medical care (Cary, 351). Astronomy also saw advances in practical knowledge from figures such as Eratosthenes, who calculated the circumference of the Earth, and Hipparchus, who determined the length of the moon’s orbit to within one second (Violatti (a), pars. 9). Architecture, once held up

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## Research Paper On Hipparchus

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Hipparchus was a greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician born 190 B.C. in Nicaea and died in 120 B.C. Rhodes, Rhodes, Greece. Hipparchus is accredited as the inventor of trigonometry because of his discovery of the first table of chords and also because he's the only person with valid data of the discovery and usage of trigonometry. In order to calculate the rising and setting of zodiacal signs, Hipparchus brought to light the division of circles into 360 degrees and the calculation of chords by looking at the triangles (spherical triangles or triangles that made up a circle) differently. Hipparchus experimented putting all triangles to be within a circle and with the three points each touching the

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## What Legacy Did Alexander the Great Leave Behind?

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Alexander the Great’s actions and decisions have significantly impacted upon the world during his time, ultimately leaving behind a legacy that can be affiliated with the westernization of the globe. He helped bring the western civilization, which included the scientific and liberal thinking of the Greeks to much of the rest of the world. He introduced a study of science for science’s sake to the nations and he is also considered as one of the most successful military commanders in history, for by the time of his death he had conquered most of the world known as Ancient Greece.

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## Compare And Contrast Classical Empires

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To start off, there are many differences in Mediterranean science than in Indian and Chinese sciences. As both the Chinese and Indians studied astronomy and calculated and charted planet distances and constellations, the Mediterranean civilizations left a larger emphasis on engineering and design, even though Greek astronomer Ptolemy created astronomical theories. The Romans building large structures like the Roman Coliseum, Hadrian’s Wall, the Circus Maximus, and miles of roads and aqueducts and the Greeks perfecting the column with different styles such as the Doric, Ionian, and the Corinthian designs and building massive temples like the Parthenon and the temple to Zeus at Olympia, clearly the Mediterranean factions focused more on architecture and engineering than astronomy. Also, expanding on Mediterranean engineering the Romans and the Greeks were one of the first civilizations to apply concrete, marble, and quartz in the construction of buildings. Also, the Mediterranean civilizations of Rome and Greece did not focus on medicine as much as the Chinese and the Indians did with the innovation of vaccinations, medical treatment, and plastic surgery; however, they did attempt to take a step into the world of chemistry. The Greek politician and scientist Democritus was the first recorded

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## The Solar System : How Our Understanding Has Changed

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During the first millennium B.C. scientists realized that astronomy had to become more scientific. Middle Eastern and Chinese cultures started studying the Sun, stars and the planets more closely in an attempt to learn more about our position in the universe.. Star positions also became important tools in understanding directions, and helping with navigation. One philosopher stated in 434 B.C. that the Sun was a ball of fire 60 kilometres in diameter, hovering 6500 kilometres above Earth’s surface. Around 130 B.C., Ptolemy wrote Almagest, which was a huge collection of astronomical data which included mathematical models, information about eclipses, and planetary and stellar positions and movements. It remained a major go to book for astronomy for hundreds of years, and was not seriously challenged until Copernicus disputed the geocentric model of the solar system in the 1500’s

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## Hellenistic Time Scientific Study

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The Hellenistic time period created the foundation for many modern ideas regarding, in particular, the topics of Astronomy and Medicine. These ideas could be found throughout the study of the size and distance of the sun and moon or the learning of human anatomy. Ancient philosophers used many techniques to study the many aspects of the world. Many of these techniques resemble scientific methods used today.

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## How Did Greek Society Shaped Western Culture

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The Pythagorean School, for example, contributed many ideas to the mathematic community, among them, studies of geometry and the theory of proof.5 Euclid also lived in the time of ancient Greece and became a prominent mathematician, as well as author of a book about geometry called, The Elements, considered the second best-selling book of all time.6 The works of Pythagoras and Euclid have become fundamental building blocks for any person with an eighth-grade understanding mathematics. With these advancements, as well as innovations from Archimedes and Apollonius of Perga, Islamic scholars translated their works and contributed even more, growing the worldwide understanding of mathematics.7 Greek progressions in geometry as well as the theory of proof contributed greatly to our ultimate understanding of contemporary mathematics, without which, our modern society would be

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## Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay

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For Pythagorean shapes and numbers was so important. He believed that the most perfect shape of the nature is circle. Therefore he put the earth in the center of a spherical world. According to Plato the movement of planets is in perfect circles. However now its known that the planetary orbits are ellipses and not

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## The Hellenistic Period

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The Classical Greece period was a period of collaborative efforts of a community. The Polis in city-states gave the notion that personal happiness was correlated to the success and life of the polis. Alongside the polis, Pericles led Athens into expanding democracy which brought upon an assembly where people were able to voice their opinion regardless of class. Eventually, Athens became the leading center of the Greek culture by allowing architecture, art, and philosophy to grow.

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## The Classical And Hellenistic Period

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Greek sculpture is known for its beauty and attention to detail. Two of the most prominent eras in Greek sculpture are the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The Classical period took place from 500-323 BC. It is the period between Persian wars and ends with the death of Alexander the Great (History). Classical sculptures are known for being less detailed more stagnant. The Hellenistic period begins when the Classical period ends, in 323 BC. This period ends in 31 BC “with the conquest of the last Hellenistic kingdom by Rome” (Simonin). Hellenistic sculptures are known for being more realistic and active. Both periods of sculpture focused heavily on human anatomy, they just differed in their approaches to illustrate the human body.

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## Ancient Greece's Influence Today

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Even though it’s called Ancient Greece, doesn’t mean that all their ideas and lifestyles are ancient. Greeks have influenced lives today in many ways. They are the base of many different creations. Greeks have influenced the world today through education, architecture, government, and many more things. Many people's ideas are still used today and really affect society and how people live.

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## Greek Culture and its Influences Today Essay

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The Greeks made several inventions, most notably in the subject of math, which are still studied today and taught in school. Mathematician Euclid is often credited as the “Father of Geometry” for all his work and studies in this subject, which are compiled in his books called The Elements. He organized known geometrical statements called theorems and logically proved all of them. He proved the theorem of Pythagoras (another Greek mathematician), which stated that the equation (c2 = a2 + b2) is true for every right triangle.

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## The Rise Of The Hellenistic Age

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The way the Greeks ran their city-states was second to none. So it was only fitting that other society’s tried to mimic what the Greeks were doing, and so a man by the name of Alexander the great, who was eager to start his own age created the Hellenistic age. Hellenistic means “literally imitating the Greeks; the era after the death of Alexander the Great when Greek culture spread into the Near East and blended with the culture of that region.” (Spielvogel, 94) Even though Alexander the great set the foundation for the Hellenistic age it truly began to take form after his death.

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## Aristotle's Influence On The Western World

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He studied sciences and mathematics in the Mouseion among Strato’s pupils in Alexandria. It was here where Archimedes would make his first contribution to society (but certainty not his last). Archimedes’s invention of the Water Screw enabled the rest of the Nile delta that was uphill to be irrigated. His invention is still being used in some parts of Egypt to this day. When he returned to Syracuse he continued his studies of hydraulics and invented the subject of hydrostatics (the study of still water). Archimedes was also interested in geometry, and even used Aristotelian logic and reasoning to prove that Plato’s claim, which states that “It is possible to form a sphere out of a series of triangles or pentagons” was false. Archimedes continued to come up with more inventions and scientific breakthroughs, dazzling the people of Syracuse with his discoveries; most of which, would not have been possible without the influence of Aristotle. However, in 214 BC the city would come under siege by the Romans, but Archimedes would not give up without a

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## Euclid Essay

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Euclid of Alexandria was born in about 325 BC. He is the most prominent mathematician of antiquity best known for his dissertation on mathematics. He was able to create “The Elements” which included the composition of many other famous mathematicians together. He began exploring math because he felt that he needed to compile certain things and fix certain postulates and theorems. His book included, many of Eudoxus’ theorems, he perfected many of Theaetetus's theorems also. Much of Euclid’s background is very vague and unknown. It is unreliable to say whether some things about him are true, there are two types of extra information stated that scientists do not know

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## Essay on Pragmatism

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George Santayana described Pragmatism this way, “American pragmatism connects the American experimental and inventive attitude with older philosophical ideas” (Stumpf 397).

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