The Costly Damage of Flooding

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Floods are the most costly and damaging natural disaster in the world (Berz, 2000). The determination of streamflow (stage or discharge) at a river station plays an important role in environmental and water resources management. Flood routing, a basis for flood forecasting, is the process of determining progressively the timing and shape of a flood wave at successive points along a river reach. Approaches for flood routing have been based either on hydraulic (process approach) or hydrologic (conceptual or system approach). Hydrologic stream routing is based on the storage concept, and conversely, hydraulic channel routing is based on the principles of mass and momentum conservation. In predicting a particular hydrograph on its passage through a river reach, any flood modeling will involve a number of assumptions and simplifications. For many rivers, topographic information neither exit nor are readily available and consequently the use of dynamic models has some limitations (Barati, 2013). In addition, a close match between the observed flow rates and the computed ones is difficult to achieve with such techniques if some parameters used along a reach are not accurate. While high demands on computer resources, as well as on the quantity and quality of input data, restrict the efficiency of hydraulic models in practical applications, approximate models produce satisfactory results at considerably less expense with a limitation in their generality and accuracy depending on the
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