The Cuban National Hero Jose Marti, A Precursor Of Latin American Modernism

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Within this essay I am going to compare and contrast two rather different nationalist ideas that prevailed in Latin America during the nineteenth century. My concentration in this comparison is on how ethnicity and race are illustrated. The first nationalist thinker whose ideas I intent to discuss is the Cuban national hero José Martí, a precursor of Latin American modernism. I will contrast Martí’s ideas and writings with the Peruvian journalist and political philosopher José Carlos Mariátegui, the representative and advocator of twentieth century Latin American Marxist ideas. There are some similarities between the offered social solutions between these authors: mainly their rejection of imported models of society and politics. However, within this essay I am arguing that the humanistic points of view between them have little in common. Whereas Martí promotes acceptance of all people and all races, and considers all people equal to each other, Mariátegui, despite claiming to be racially indifferent and accepting, in fact reveals racist and discriminating arguments that undermine his claimed acceptance and embracement of the different races of America. To support my argument, I will be offering relevant examples from both authors’ most famous publications, Martí’s ‘Nuestra América’ and ‘Mi Raza’, and Mariátegui’s ‘Siete ensayos de interpretación sobre la realidad peruana’, and ‘El problema de las razas en América Latina’. Mariátegui’s ideology is strongly tied to the

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