The Culture Of Liberty, And Kanishka Chowdhury And The Reluctant Fundamentalist, By Moshin Hamid

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Cosmopolitan fiction, the most prominent strand of contemporary global Anglophone literature, gives us images of the “solution” to the violent history of colonization in a new era of a post-national cosmopolitan global culture brought about by “globalization”. In this purportedly new global era of a “hybrid” mixing of national cultures, the very idea of a “national identity” is deemed irrelevant in what Thomas Friedman calls “a flat world.” Some noteworthy cosmopolitan ideas can be seen in Bharati Mukherji’s “Orbiting,” in that the short story can be read as advocating a cosmopolitan world view. This, however, directly clashes with the ideas of globalization presented in Mario Vargas Llosa’s “The Culture of Liberty,” and Kanishka Chowdhury’s Globalization and the ideologies of Postnationalism and Hybridity.” Accordingly, Rana Dasgupta’s “The House of the Frankfurt Mapmaker” and The Reluctant Fundamentalist, by Moshin Hamid, critically challenge the cosmopolitan outlook as questionable fiction. Cosmopolitanism is the idea that everyone belongs to a worldwide community, that there is a hybridization amongst people that serves as a uniting factor and is almost synonymous with multiculturalism. This notion has been brought about by capitalists and the elites of society, who prefer a world without borders, which, in turn, enables unrestricted access to a plethora of markets and resources. Coincidentally, this only furthers to empower the World Bank and the IMF, two of the

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