The Current Idea Of Intelligence

1297 Words6 Pages
Paper 1 Intelligence has been identified in many different ways throughout history and varies between different cultures. The current idea of intelligence consists of intangible properties that include, but are not limited to, knowledge-based thinking, apprehending, adaptive purposeful striving, fluid-analytic reasoning, mental playfulness, and idiosyncratic learning (Krishnamurthy, 2015). Progression of Intelligence Testing Through the Ages The notion that Caucasians were superior to other races (e.g., African Americans, Native Americans, etc.) was a well accepted notion that preceded, and even influenced, early intelligence testing (Gould, 1996). Research conducted by Samuel Morton on human skulls began in the 1820’s attempted to set up a scientifically based racial-ranking system of intelligence through the use of Craniometry. However, Morton’s research was heavily biased, although it appeared his biases were unintentional and lacked “conscious manipulation” (p. 101). Even though data from Morton’s research acknowledged that brain size was relative to body size, he “failed to correct for differences in sex or body size” (p. 94). Morton also made errors that favored his prejudices which included inaccurate measurements (e.g., unequal rounding cranial circumference measurements, “over-packing” skulls) and sampling biases (e.g., including unequal female to male ratios in particular samples, over-representing certain groups samples) (p. 86-101). Furthermore, scientists such
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