The Darfur Crisis Essay

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Introduction The “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P) is a concept that has its roots in the philosophy of “Human Security”. Human Security can be defined as focusing on the individual human being as the referent object of security as distinct from the nation-state. R2P and Human Security have gathered impetus in the international community both in academic and policy spheres with a view to these concepts being justifiers for humanitarian intervention.

Taking realism as the security argument that deals directly with state security, it is accepted that nation states have valid concerns in protecting their borders and populations within from external threats, be they military force or manifestations of problems stemming from
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A Brief History of R2P in Policy

Before relating the R2P to the Darfur Crisis it is important to understand the fundamental tenants of the R2P debate in relation to humanitarian intervention and the repercussions for state sovereignty. The R2P concept can trace its modern origin to the address given by former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, to the General Assembly in 1999 putting forward the challenge of preventing another Rwanda.

In response to this challenge the Canadian Government sponsored the foundation of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) in 2000 . Its report “The Responsibility to Protect” was released the following year. The report outlines that the main message of R2P is that sovereignty entails responsibility. Responsibility to protect its citizens from genocide and other gross violations of human rights . Should any particular nation fail to uphold these protections, then under the R2P concept responsibility devolves to the international community .

This of course comes with a significant moral weight. The R2P report from the ICISS effectively changed the conceptual thinking from “Humanitarian Intervention” to “Responsibility to Protect” effectively

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