The Dass-21 Had A Good Internal Consistency. For Depression,

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The DASS-21 had a good internal consistency. For depression, anxiety and stress subscales, Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.94, 0.87 and 0.91; respectively (Antony et al., 1998). In our study, we utilized the Malaysian version of the DASS-21, which was translated and validated by Musa et al., 2007 and showed a good internal consistency; i.e., Cronbach’s alpha for depression subscale = 0.84, for anxiety subscale = 0.74 and for stress subscale = 0.79 (Musa et al., 2007). Statistical Analysis All analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). To address our research objectives, we ran either descriptive or inferential analyses. Categorical variables were described…show more content…
Only 36% were current smokers, whereas 37% of the patients were current alcohol consumers. Presence and Severities of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms Based on the presence or absence of the assessed disorders symptoms, it was found that 58.9%, 68.2% and 41.1% of the study subjects had the symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress; respectively. Table 3 presents participants’ frequencies and percentages based on the presence of the symptoms and its severity of each measured disorder. Only 23.4% of the patients were totally free of any of these symptoms, whereas 35.5% of the patients had the three disorders symptoms. For depression and anxiety, the majority of symptoms were moderate in severity, while the majority of stress symptoms were mild in severity. Table 3 Frequencies and Percentages of the Intensity of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Symptomatology among the Study Participants (N = 107) Psychological disorder Frequency % Depression 63 58.9 Mild 15 14.0 Moderate 25 23.4 Severe 15 14.0 Extremely Severe 8 7.5 Anxiety 73 68.2 Mild 16 15.0 Moderate 30 28.0 Severe 13 12.1 Extremely Severe 14 13.1 Stress 44 41.1 Mild 19 17.8 Moderate 11 10.3 Severe 11 10.3 Extremely Severe 3 2.8 Morbidity Three disorders symptoms 38 35.5 Two disorders symptoms 22 20.6 One disorder symptoms 22 20.6 Free of symptomsa 25 23.4 Total 107 100 Note. The sum of frequencies and
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