A mental disorder is a disease that can cause mild to severe disturbances or impairments in behavior or mental wellbeing. These effects may result in the inability of the individual to effectively cope with the demands and pressures of everyday life. There are more than 200 types of different mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, dementia, and schizophrenia, among many others. However, in this paper the main focus will be placed on depression and anxiety.
Depression and anxiety are two common disorders that many Americans deal with day in and day out. So, individual Americans may ask, are we anxious, or are we depressed? Anxiety and depression are thought of as two distinct disorders. However, in this world, many people suffer from both conditions. Knowing the similarities, differences, treatments, and prevention/reduction of depression and anxiety is important because one is a mood disorder, and the other is a psychiatric disorder. [Good use of third person and plan of development thesis!]
METHODOLOGY: The paper was a qualitative review utilizing mostly correlational methods and containing both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
Lang, A. J., Norman, S. B., Means-Christensen, A., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Abbreviated brief symptom inventory for use as an anxiety and depression screening instrument in primary care. Depression & Anxiety, 26(6),
This study will also examine the differences and distances between the categories of mild, moderate, and severe. In reviewing the process of the level of measurement I would say that there are no association with numbers in terms of the distance between the categories, and measuring the depression levels (Brockopp, & Hastings-Tolsma, 2003). The operationalization of the ordinal levels of data according to the BDI-Fast Screen allows me to capture more complex data on central tendency that are not available to ordinal levels of measurement. For example, it is possible to calculate the median and mode in a rank-ordered data, however, the interval level of measurement allows the calculation of a mean, as well as a range and standard deviation. Because of the additional information provided by the interval level of measurement gained by operationalizing levels of depression based onBDI-FastScreen scores, a more complex statistical analysis will be possible. This will enable my research study to provide more complex information on the variables (Frankfort-Nachmias & Nachmias,
(1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335-343.
Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x
The participants of this study were Iranian University students all in their early 20’s. To qualify for this study participants had to have scored an 18 or higher on the depression subscale and a 16 or higher on the anxiety
In the United States, 85% of all adults and teenagers, more females than males, have been depressed at one point in their life. (Davey) Although the term is used loosely because people tend to incorrectly self-diagnose their “sadness” as depression, it is actually defined as “a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how one feels and the way he or she thinks and acts.” (Parekh). In most cases, depression is accompanied with a type of anxiety disorder such as as generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety (Facts). The cause of them occurring at the same time is unknown, but scientists believe that it is caused by a malfunction of brain chemistry. Generalized anxiety, the leading mental illness that affects over 40 million
The Total 72 sample were collected using purposive sampling technique The result indicated that there was no significance difference in pretrait and prestate anxiety among the participate scores. In addition, the education level was no significant in three groups (P = 0.594). Therefore, the randomization method was adequate for random allocation of recruited individuals in three groups. The ANOVA was conducted to compare the posttrait and post state anxiety among three groups. The F-test showed that a significant difference among three groups regarding scores of posttrait and poststate anxiety (P< 0.05). Moreover, the changes of scores in trait and state anxiety were statistically significant (P< 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test was used to compare groups one by one, and the results showed that Benson's relaxation method was similar to systematic desensitization method in decreasing the trait and state anxiety score (P = 0.903). Therefore, both Benson's relaxation and systematic desensitization intervention methods were effective in decreasing of the anxiety score of
Psychiatric studies that were part of this study include Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and SCL-90-R questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire measures the severity of depression and screens patients who require intervention. BDI scores minimal depression from 0-13, mild depression from 14-19, moderate depression from 20-28, with severe depression scoring lying within the 29-63 range (Beck AT. Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006). HARS provides an overall measure of global anxiety that is psychiatric and somatic symptomatically. Scoring ranges from 0-56 with a score over 14 indicating high levels of anxiety (Bagby RM, Ryder AG, Schuller DR, Marshall MB. "The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: has the gold standard become a lead weight?" Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161(12):2163-77). SCL-90-R questionnaire presented
Results: Statistical comparisons have shown that there is a significant difference among two age groups under study regarding to psychological distress scale, psychological wellbeing scale and activity of daily living scale. No meaningful difference was seen concern with physical functioning (SF-36) scale between two groups.
In the experiment conducted by Myriam V. Thoma, 60 female volunteers were studied. (Average age was 25.3 years, Standard Deviation [SD] was 3.21 years, body mass index [BMI] average was 21.63 kg/m2, SD of BMI was 2.34, average years of education was 15.3 years, SD of years of education was 2.56.) The volunteers were physically and cognitively healthy and well during the time of the experiment. Their average Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, a 5.5 with a SD of 3.0, shows that there were no major symptoms of depression in the study group. Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS) scores averaged 17.32 (SD was 7.55), illustrating that there were low amounts of long-term stress in the sample. Average State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores (37.47, SD of 9.86) show low characteristic levels of anxiety overall in the studied group. As to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the participants’ average scores (reappraisal: 4.83, suppression: 3.29) were similar to the natural score ranges for female subjects as defined by Gross and John. According to the MPQ, only pop music was favored over classical music in the studied group. 60 volunteers were distributed evenly
Statistical calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft Corporation, NY, USA) and SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 15 for Microsoft Windows. Student’s t and χ2 tests were used to compare continuous and categorical variables respectively. A probability value (p value) of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
The objective of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the analysis of the data and present the main findings. It also presents the different tests performed to help choose the appropriate model for the study. The chapter concludes by providing thorough statistical interpretation of the findings.