The Death Of Patients With Pneumococcal Pneumonia

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The leading cause of death in patients diagnosed with pneumococcal pneumonia is respiratory failure. Other causes include respiratory and systemic organ failure (3). The Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium has a lethal role in causing respiratory failure in patients with pneumonia. This disease is infectious in humans of all ages, but children and the elderly are at higher risk (5). Pneumonia can be classified based on how you can contract it. The basic types of pneumonia include; community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, and opportunistic pneumonia. Out of the four different types, community-acquired pneumonia is the most common(2). Streptoccocus pneumoniae is not a stranger to the human body.…show more content…
Specific ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are one group of transporters that provide the mechanics for substrate transport in pneumococci. They can import carbon amino acid substrates, carbohydrates, and other nutrients needed by the cell (1, 4). They can also export material such as the outer surface adhesins, degradation enzymes and synthetic capsular components. Additionally, these transporters are vital to the cell’s ability to take up DNA and they function as efflux pumps to counter antibiotics. When describing the mechanism, it is important to note that the ABC transporter has two ATPases attached to it to help generate energy, two permeases that intersect the membrane and a substrate binding protein that acts as a receptor. In the presence of ATP, the permease causes a conformation change in the transporter that allows the substrate binding protein to release the substrate (1). Hydrolysis of ATP causes the substrate to enter the cell. Once ADP and Pi is released, the transporter resets to the resting state(1). Substrate transport as described above is important to the existence of pneumococci in hosts. For this reason, the bacterium has reserved much genetic space for the synthesis of components that make this mechanism successful. When the involved lungs are examined, one can note that changes occur anatomically and physiologically in pneumonia patients. Vascular enlargement and the formation
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