The Debate Between Single Cue And Multiple Cues

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2.7 The debate between single cue and multiple cues As mentioned early in this study, consumers would consider COO as an extrinsic cue to identify product quality and value, especially when they have limited knowledge about particular product. However, there is no agreement by researchers about how to examine COO effect. In previous literature, researchers had examined COO effect by using several methods. More specifically, those methods could be divided into two aspects: single cue and multiple cues. Both two methods will be reviewed in the following two sections. 2.7.1 COO effect under single cue In the earlier stage of COO effect research, it had been examined by using COO as only one cue while all other information cues were controlled. Nagashima (1970) measured COO effect by a cross-cultural image method that comparing the attitudes of Japanese and U.S. toward both domestic and foreign products, including USA, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Canada and England. A seven-point scale questionnaire was used in that study, from reliable to unreliable. Nagashima (1970) found that the COO effect was different between Japanese and American businessmen. Japanese hold the highest evaluation to products manufactured in Germany while American gave the highest evaluation to domestic products. Besides, the products manufactured in the UK were rated higher because outstanding craftsmanship. Nagashima (1977) measured Japanese businessmen’s opinion toward five countries
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