The Debate Of Pre Socrates ' Philosophy On The Nature Of Existence, Being And The World

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Pre-Socrates were a group of ancient Greek thinkers who live in sixth and fifth centuries BC. The term Pre-Socrates refers to these philosophers because they lived prior to and during the life of Socrates. Pre-Socrates thinkers were primarily interested in metaphysic and cosmogony. “Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of existence, being and the world” (Miller, P.8) Metaphysical questions being those concerned with ultimate constitution of nature, while cosmological questions are focused on origins and structure of the universe. Before we get into introducing Pre-Socrates and their theories, we must know some terms:
1- Materialism (everything is matter): The view that matter is the ultimate constituent of
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The third Pre-Socrates philosopher was Anaximenes (Materialism). He proposed that the origin of all things was air. In calling the origin of things a definite substance, he seems to have failed to grasp Anaximander’s insight that if the arcades to exist must be an indefinite substance. However, he represented an advance on Thales and Anaximander because unlike his predecessors he gave a scientific explanation about how air transforms itself into all the different things we observed in the world like fire and water.
The fourth Pre-Socrates philosopher was Pythagoras (Idealism) . He couldn’t see how it could be the case that someone can explain the existence of everything based on simply natural occurrences. Therefore, he came up with what ends up being a revolutionary idea. He believed that everything is composed of numbers.
The fifth Pre-Socrates philosopher was Parmenides (Idealism). Parmenides brought speculation about the nature of the universe to a halt by claiming that our experience of the world is an unequivocal illusion. our experience of the world tells us that things move from one place to another, things are born, change, and die. He did not believe that change is possible. The truth according to Parmenides is that there is no separate thing in the world. He
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