The Definition For Agents Of Foreign Powers

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The second part of the expansion broadened the FISA definition for agents of foreign powers, removing the requirement for individuals to have established connections or affiliations with foreign powers (Bloom and Dunn, 2006). Subsequently, in 2002 an amendment authorized the US Attorney General to conduct warrantless surveillance based on national security interests. The expansion of powers and degradation of Fourth Amendment protections for electronic surveillance were deliberate and put in place under the promise of thwarting terrorist attacks in the United States (Bloom and Dunn, 2006).
Citizens traded personal liberties for national security. However, several years after implementation there is little evidence of their effectiveness
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This expansion included both technical capabilities and legal authority.
In their Journal of Law and Society article, Technologies, Security, and Privacy in the Post-9/11 European Information Society, Levi and Wall examine how privacy protections have evolved since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. While, the European perspective is the primary focus of the article, the arguments are no less relevant to observations of the United States post 9/11 digital security environment.
Levi and Wall explore the longer-term impact of law enforcement policies and procedures put in place based on the relationship between terrorism and identity-related technologies (Levi and Wall 2004). Specifically, they note, “Clearly, the attacks of September 11, 2001 on the United States of America constituted a major `event ' in world history. This was a portentous outcome. . . a transformation device between past and future; it has eventuated from the past and signifies for the future” (Levi and Wall 2004).
The defining moment in dismantling digital data privacy, in the United States specifically, was a necessitated response to prevent future terrorist attacks on the scale of 9/11. However, the responses of European governments and the United States differed dramatically. The EU member states focused on hardening their perceived targets. Conversely, the US focus
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