The Definition of DNA

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DNA: DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria .The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four nitrogen bases which are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). these nitrogen bases are bind with each other through hydrogen bond. [1] History of DNA research dna structure dna replication Before a cell can divide, it must duplicate all its DNA. In eukaryotes, this occurs during S phase of the cell cycle. The Biochemical Reactions * DNA…show more content…
Identification * DNA is often referred to as a double helix because of its appearance. DNA is made of two long strands called nucleotides that run in opposite directions from one another. Nucleotides are made of sugars and phosphate groups that are joined together by ester bonds. Attached to each of the sugars is a molecule called a base. Four different types of bases encode the information that is used for cell replication. Evolution * As organisms evolve, DNA sequences change to produce new qualities and weed out qualities that are no longer needed. Sometimes this happens because of a process of natural selection. Qualities that help people survive certain diseases and conditions continue to be passed on to offspring; less desirable qualities are slowly removed from the population. These DNA evolutions help species to survive and reproduce despite changing conditions.[8] Disease Diagnosis and Treatment One important area of DNA research is that of genetics and medical research. Due to our discovery of DNA, our ability to actually diagnose diseases early on has been vastly improved. In addition, we have been able to better assess a person's genetic susceptibility to specific diseases. In doing so, we have also paved the pathway to formulate brand new drugs to treat these diseases. In fact, drugs can essentially be custom made to complement a person's personal biochemistry and genetic makeup. For those diseases that were previously considered

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