The Development of Independent Professional Police Forces and Civil Services

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History of the criminal justice system: The development of independent professional police forces and civil services The rise of formal police organizations, in contrast to kin-based retribution, was one of the most significant developments of modern civilization. The Romans were the first civilization to have a permanent policing force that was made up of neither mercenaries nor soldiers. The most elite members of the police force were the Praetorian Guard that was specifically entrusted with protecting the emperor from assassination. Less elite forces were charged with protecting general public safety and preventing fires. This early police force was focused upon guarding the government more than helping the common people (Police history, 2012, Real Police). The development of a police force in the form of an objective, outside authority designed primarily to serve the general populace took a far longer period of time. Perhaps the most significant event in the history of policing, beyond the development of a 'police force' itself was the creation of an authority trusted with specific protections that was an independent entity not beholden to the ruler of the government. An excellent example of this is the British Scotland Yard, which was later to become a model for many democracies' investigative police forces. Before industrialization in Great Britain, "one unarmed able-bodied citizen in each parish, who was appointed or elected annually to serve for a year

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