The Development of Psychological Disorders

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Psychological disorders occur when several behaviors cause impairment in a person’s life. The individual can’t function successful in many areas of his/her live. According to Santrock, psychoanalytic theories define development as unconscious and strongly affected by emotions. For the psychoanalytic theorists, in order to understand the development, it is necessary to analyze the symbolic meaning of behavior and the inner workings of the mind. They agree that experiences in early childhood with the parents play an important role during development (Santrock, 2011, p. 22). According to Freud, development is sexual motivated and a child goes through five psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Freud believed…show more content…
Bandura underlined that people pick up a wide range of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings through observing other individuals’ behavior (Santrock, 2011, p. 27). According to Skinner and Bandura’s learning theories, psychological disorder develop when an individual compare or compete their performance with traditional standards or with others and themselves. If the person does poorly in comparison with their standard, they will give themselves punishing self-responses. These self-responses can lead to feelings of shame. If the person thinks he is failing to meet the standards and start punishing themselves, they will have a poor self-image, which might result in psychological disorders (Boeree, 2012). According to Bronfenbrenner, everything in a child and the child’s environment affects how a child grows and develops. There are five environmental sytems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem to his theory (Santrock, 2011, p. 28). Each system will affect the child’s development positive or negative. The microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in. This setting includes immediate family or caregivers and their school or daycare. How a child acts or reacts to these people in the microsystem will affect how they treat her in return (Oswalt, 2008). The mesosystem is the setting where the interaction between family and the school or other social
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