The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders

1504 Words7 Pages
The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). (DSM V) describes substance use disorder as an abnormal pattern of substance usage, which leads to significant damage or distress, which can occur within a twelve-month period. The DSM V, In order to be diagnosed the with a substance use disorder, two of the eleven criteria must be fulfilled in order for a diagnosis of substance use disorder, (see Table 1) ( Table 1 DSM V criteria for substance use disorder This essay shall compare and contrast between the biological approach to substance use disorder and the psychological approach. This essay intends to focus on the cognitive expectancy theory with regards to substance use disorder. It will also look at which is the best approach with regards to treatment and maintenance of abstinence from substance use. The biological approach to substance use disorder states that the drug taking behaviour is a result of imbalance between three interacting but separate neural systems. The amygdala- striatum, the prefrontal cortex and the insular cortex. The amygdala-striatum, system is responsible for automatic and habitual behaviours. The prefrontal cortex is also involved this area with respect decision making, that is being able to forecast consequences of certain behaviours with regards to drug use, and the insular cortex that is located within the lateral sulcus. This area is involved with self awareness and cognitive
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