The Discovery And Development Of Antibiotics

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The 20th century brought along a period of success in human therapeutics with the discovery and development of antibiotics. An antibiotic is a specific type of antimicrobial that is produced by microorganisms to fight off other microorganisms. The first commercialized antibiotic was Penicillin in 1945. The discovery of the drug was led by Alexander Fleming in 1928 and it became widely used in World War II to help heal surgical and wound infections (Carlet et al.). When Fleming was presented with the Nobel Prize for his discovery, he made sure to warn the human race of Penicillin-resistant bacteria (“About”). He stated, "the thoughtless person playing with penicillin treatment is morally responsible for the death of a man who succumbs to…show more content…
Antibiotic drugs have been inappropriately used for so long that the infectious organisms the antibiotics are designed to kill have adapted to them, making the drugs less effective. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to resist the effects of an antibiotic. This means that even after an individual takes the necessary antibiotics, bacteria will still remain in the body. Over time, bacteria have stopped responding to the antibiotics. Daptomycin, one of the most recent drugs, was founded in 2003. A year later, resistance to it was found. (McKenna). Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections (“About”). Bacteria have started to develop resistance so quickly, that pharmaceutical companies have decided to stop spending their time and money on the discovery of new antibiotics. Infections are gradually making their way around the world, and for every 100 antibiotics currently available, two drugs might work with side effects, or none (McKenna). According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), “Unless antibiotic resistance problems are detected as they emerge, and actions are taken to contain them, the world could be faced with previously treatable disease that have again become untreatable, as in the days before antibiotic were developed.” Whether the use of the
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