The Distribution Of Annual Net Income Scaled By The Market Value At The Beginning Of The Year

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The distribution of annual net income scaled by the market value at the beginning of the year (Burgstahler and Dichev, 1997). Notice the obvious shift of observations from just under expected levels of income to just over expected levels, showing evidence of earnings management. Dechow et al. (2000) focus on firms with positive earnings and firms with zero forecast error to evaluate whether firms manipulate accruals and special items to beat the zero earnings benchmark. However, the result fails to establish a significant difference between the level of discretionary accruals and working capital accruals in firms that achieve the target and those that fall short. The earning distribution method is based on the assumption that the target…show more content…
Roychowdhury (2006) derived normal levels of cash flow from operations, discretionary expenses and production costs; then tested the effect of sales manipulation, discretionary expenditures and overproduction on the abnormal of the previous three variables. His research found that directors use the various RM activities to manipulate earnings, however it is unclear just how much can be attributed to the purpose of meeting expectations, and how much is to simply control expenses during times of difficulty. Grahama, Harvey and Rajgopalc (2004) interviewed over 400 executives, revealing that executives assign a high level of priority in meeting target earnings as it builds credibility with the market and multiplies the positive effect, confirming previous research. The executives also believed failing to meet the targets would result in a severe market reaction and that directors sacrifice economic value to avoid these effects, avoiding a potentially larger economic loss. This can also be said of achieving or beating expectations, where the potential economic gain from the multiplied positive market effect can easily outweigh the economic sacrifice. Equipped with these justifications, over 80% of those surveyed admitted they were willing to sacrifice economic value and use RM to meet expectations. Moreover, the executives acknowledged that RM is more widespread and favoured to the manipulation of accounting methods,

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