The Dna And Its Effects On The Body

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When mammalian DNA is injected into the body, dendritic cells are not stimulated. Moreover, it also failed to elicit appreciable antibody response even when it coupled with a protein carrier and presented in adjuvant (Madaio et al., 1984). This failed action is quite the opposite of animal disease models that are stimulated by immunization with protein auto-antigens such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis or collagen-induced arthritis, inferring that DNA is different from other biomolecules in its immunological properties. Various studies, including from our lab (Dixit et al., 2005; Tripathi et al., 2014) as well as from others (Al Arfaj et al., 2007) propose that the DNA molecule undertake structural changes leading to the formation of new epitopes or neo-epitopes that are recognized as foreign by the immune system and are able to bring out antibody responses. However, when single stranded DNA is used for immunization, it can bring a restricted antibody response, and other helical nucleic acid species including double stranded RNA, RNA-DNA hybrids, carcinogen or drug modified DNA or complexes of DNA with proteins that can bind DNA are considered to be effective immunogens (Stollar, 1975; Anderson et al., 1988; Desai et al., 1993; Moinuddin and Ali, 1994; Dixit et al., 2005; Khan et al., 2006; Tripathi et al., 2013). Due to the presence of distinctive sequence motifs, bacterial DNA can induce the immune system to generate antibodies to sequential rather that backbone
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