The Dna Mismatch Repair System ( Mmr ) Essay

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In a dazzling display of choreography, proteins of the the DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) come together to fix replication errors, which results in an extraordinarily high degree of genomic fidelity.1-5 It is no wonder, then, that the MMR system has transcended almost all evolutionary stratification and is a highly conserved process across species. The MMR system is chiefly responsible for initiating cellular responses for several types of DNA lesions, including single-base mismatches and small insertion-deletion loops.1 Mounting evidence suggests that MMR may play a role in numerous other processes, including triggering the generation of immune diversity. How this actually happens, however, is still the topic of many investigations.19, 20
MutSα, one of the many components of human MMR, is known to affect all of the aforementioned processes. In instances where epigenetic silencing or mutations of genes that code for the proteins of MutSα occur, DNA mismatches are allowed to persist, which collectively increase the probability that microsatellite instabilities (a mutator phenotype) occur. Microsatellites are known to cause an increased tolerance to DNA methylation, hyperrecombination, and numerous other perturbations on DNA that can eventually lead to cancers and/or defective progeny.3, 11 Considering the importance of MMR to human health, a thorough understanding of the structure, function, and temporal relationships between the many components of MMR is
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